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Structure and Functio of the Cardiovascular System

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Emma McCormack

on 29 January 2016

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Transcript of Structure and Functio of the Cardiovascular System

62
ECG
bpm
Thank You!
Learning Outcomes:
Structure of the Heart
The Flow of Blood
Structure of Blood Vessels
arteries - arterioles - capillaries - veins - venuoles
http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/ss/Atria-Of-The-Heart.htm
Warm up task - look at the following website: http://www.e-learningforkids.org/health/lesson/heart-and-circulation/

You have 5mins to have a look through it and read any information and complete the exercise


Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular System
To know the function of the cardiovascular system
The Structure of the Cardiovascular System
Structure of the Heart - atria, ventricles, bicuspid valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve, aorta, vena cava (superior and inferior), pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery
Structure of Blood Vessels - arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins,venuoles
To know the structure of the cardiovascular system
Function of the Cardiovascular System
delivery of oxygen and nutrients
removal of waste products
thermoregulation (vasodilation and vasoconstriction)
function of blood - (oxygen transport, clotting, fighting infection)
Task 1 - have a go at labelling the heart
To summarize:

Right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonic valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, the rest of the body

Task:
Write the journey of a blood cell. You may use the following website to help you or another one of your choice:
http://surgery.about.com/od/beforesurgery/a/HeartBloodFlow.htm
Right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonic valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, the rest of the body.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/appliedanatomy/0_anatomy_circulatorysys_rev1.shtml
Label the following:
atria (left & right)
ventricles (left & right)
bicuspid valve (mitral valve)
tricuspid valve
aortic valve
pulmonary valve
aorta
vena cava superior
vena cava inferior
pulmonary vein
pulmonary artery
Discuss the word 'cardiovascular' with the person next to you. What do you understand by it?
Little Quiz!
The Cardiac Conduction Cycle
Systemic & Pulmonary Circulation
Double Circulatory System
Stroke Volume and Cardio Output
How does your heart work?
Using the analogy of the central heating system, the pump, pipes and radiators are of no use unless connected to a power supply. The pump needs electricity to work. The human heart has a similar need for a power source and also uses electricity. Thankfully we don't need to plug ourselves in to the mains, the heart is able to create it's own electrical impulses and control the route the impulses take via a specialised conduction pathway.
This pathway is made up of 5 elements:
1. The sino-atrial (SA) node
2. The atrio-ventricular (AV) node
3. The bundle of His
4. The left and right bundle branches
5. The Purkinje fibres



The right heart pump consists of the right atrium (RA), tricuspid valve (TV), right ventricle (RV), pulmonic valve (PV), and pulmonary artery (PA). Poorly oxygenated, "used" blood returning to the heart from the body's organs enters the right atrium, and is stored there until the right atrium contracts.
When the right atrium contracts, the tricuspid valve opens, allowing the blood to enter the right ventricle.
Then, when the right ventricle contracts, the pulmonic valve opens, and the blood is propelled into the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary artery carries the blood to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen.
The left heart pump consists of the left atrium (LA), mitral valve (MV), left ventricle (LV), aortic valve (AV), and aorta (Ao). Well oxygenated blood returning to the heart from the lungs enters the left atrium, and is stored there until the left atrium contracts.
When the left atrium contracts, the mitral valve opens, allowing the blood to enter the left ventricle.
Then, when the left ventricle contracts, the aortic valve opens, and the blood is propelled into aorta, the main artery of the body. The aorta then carries the blood throughout the body.

The Flow of Electrical Pulses:
The SA node is the natural pacemaker of the heart.
The SA node releases electrical stimuli at a regular rate, the rate is dictated by the needs of the body. Each stimulus passes through the myocardial cells of the atria creating a wave of contraction which spreads rapidly through both atria.
As an analogy, imagine a picture made up of dominoes. One domino is pushed over causing a wave of collapsing dominoes spreading out across the picture until all dominoes are down.
The electrical stimulus from the SA node eventually reaches the AV node and is delayed briefly so that the contracting atria have enough time to pump all the blood into the ventricles. Once the atria are empty of blood the valves between the atria and ventricles close. At this point the atria begin to refill and the electrical stimulus passes through the AV node and Bundle of His into the Bundle branches and Purkinje fibres.
Imagine the bundle branches as motorways, if you like, with the Purkinje fibres as A and B roads that spread widely across the ventricles . In this way all the cells in the ventricles receive an electrical stimulus causing them to contract
As the ventricles contract, the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed, whilst the left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta from where it passes into the coronary and arterial circulation.
At this point the ventricles are empty, the atria are full and the valves between them are closed. The SA node is about to release another electrical stimulus and the process is about to repeat itself. However, there is a 3rd section to this process. The SA node and AV node contain only one stimulus. Therefore every time the nodes release a stimulus they must recharge before they can do it again.
In the case of the heart, the SA node recharges whilst the atria are refilling, and the AV node recharges when the ventricles are refilling. In this way there is no need for a pause in heart function. Again, this process takes less than one third of a second
A double circulatory system is when the blood flows through the heart twice. The heart needs a double circulatory system in order to pump blood to the lungs and around the body at the same time.
The first system is know as the PULMONARY CIRCULATION is between the right ventricle and the left atrium -
TASK
: write down the journey in between.
The second system is the SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION that works between the left ventricle and the right atrium.
TASK
: write the journey in between.
BOTH SYSTEMS WORK AT THE SAME TIME.
Pulmonary System (First System)
DEOXYGENATED
blood is pumped out of the
RIGHT VENTRICLE
into the
P
ULMONARY ARTERIES
where it is pumped to the
LUNGS
. Gaseous exchange occurs where CO2 is released and O2 is taken on board. This
OXYGENATED
blood is then returned to the
HEART
via the
PULMONARY VEINS
and into the
LEFT ATRIUM
.
Systemic System (Second System)
OXYGENATED
blood is pumped out of the
LEFT VENTRICLE
into the
AORTA
that tranports the blood to the head and the rest of the
BODY
. It then brings back the
DEOXYGENATED
blood to the
HEART
via the
VENA CAVA
into the
RIGHT ATRIUM.
Stroke Volume:
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction. The stroke volume is not all the blood contained in the left ventricle; normally, only about two-thirds of the blood in the ventricle is expelled with each beat. Together with the heart rate, the stroke volume determines the output of blood by the heart per minute (cardiac output).
Cardio Ouput:
is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute (mL blood/min). Cardiac output is a function of heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is simply the number of heart beats per minute. The stroke volume is the volume of blood, in milliliters (mL), pumped out of the heart with each beat.
Function of Blood Vessels
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/446841594258099835/
Structure of Blood Vessels:
Venuoles - • The smallest veins in the body are called venules.
• Venules receive blood from the arteries via the arterioles and capillaries.
• The venules branch into larger veins which eventually carry the blood to the largest veins in the body, the vena cava.
• The blood is then transported from the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava to the right atrium of the heart.
What Is an Arteriole?
• The smallest arteries are called arterioles and they play a vital role in microcirculation.
• Microcirculation deals with the circulation of blood from arterioles to capillaries to venules (the smallest veins).

What Is an Artery?
• An artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. There are two main types of arteries: pulmonary arteries and systemic arteries.
• Pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs where the blood picks up oxygen.
• The oxygen rich blood is then returned to the heart via the pulmonary veins (note: this is the only vein in the body that carries oxygenated blood!).
• Systemic arteries deliver blood to the rest of the body.
• The aorta is the main systemic artery and the largest artery of the body. It originates from the heart and branches out into smaller arteries which supply blood to the rest of the body.

Blood is circulated through the body via the cardiovascular system.
This system is comprised of the heart and the circulatory system.
Blood vessels carry blood from the heart to all areas of the body.
The blood travels from the heart via arteries to smaller arterioles, then to capillaries, then to venules, to veins, and back to the heart.
Circulation
Heart – arteries – arterioles – capil
laries – venuoles – veins - heart
Blood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body. Blood vessels are constructed of layers of connective tissue and muscle. The inner blood vessel layer is formed of endothelium. In capillaries, endothelium comprises the majority of the vessel.
What are Blood Vessels
What Is a Vein?
• Veins are elastic vessels that transport blood to the heart. Veins can be categorized into four main types: pulmonary, systemic, superficial, and deep veins.
Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Systemic veins return deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body to the right atrium of the heart.
• A vein can range in size from 1 millimeter to 1-1.5 centimeters in diameter.
• The smallest veins in the body are called venules.
• Venules receive blood from the arteries via the arterioles and capillaries.
• The venules branch into larger veins which eventually carry the blood to the largest veins in the body, the vena cava.
• The blood is then transported from the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava to the right atrium of the heart.

What Is a Capillary?
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/446841594258099851/
A capillary is an extremely small blood vessel located within the tissues of the body that transports blood from arteries to veins. Capillaries are most abundant in tissues and organs that are metabolically active. For example, muscle tissues and the kidneys have a greater amount of capillary networks than do connective tissues.
Research Task:
Please research further the 1st and 2nd function of blood vessels and write this up in your own words. Please reference your work.
Function of Blood Vessels:
1. Delivery of oxygen & nutrients
2. Removal of waste products
3. Thermoregulation (vasodilation & vasoconstriction)
4. Function of Blood
oxygen transport
clotting
fighting infection
Full transcript