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Rome

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Tylor Kistler

on 3 February 2015

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Transcript of Rome

250 B.C
0 A.D.
500 A.D.
700B.C.
250 A.D.
Rome
Origins of Rome
Founded: 753 B.C. by Romulus and Remus
Earliest settlers on Italian Peninsula: 1000-500 B.C.
Latins, Greeks, Etruscans: fought for power
Latins: Built original Rome settlement
Considered the first Romans
Greeks (750-600 B.C.): Southern Italy/Sicily
Brought Rome close to Greek civilization
Etruscans: Northern Italy
Influenced Roman civilization development: writing (alphabet) and architecture (use of the arc)
Rome's First Triumvirate
Consisted of Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey - lasted for 10 years
Caesar Was a strong leader and military strategist
58 B.C. - 50 B.C. Lead conquest of Gaul (now France)
Appointed himself governor after successful campaign
Success made him popular with the people of Rome
50B.C. Caesar was ordered by Pompey and The Roman Senate to disband his legion and come back to Rome
46 B.C. Caesar refuses and marches his legion towards Rome instead
Caesar is appointed as dictator of Rome by soldiers and masses
44 B.C. Caesar is named dictator for life
Caesar -starts reforms- creates jobs, starts colonies, expands senate
Caesars power is feared once again
March 15, 44 B.C. Caesar is assassinated
Civil War
By 100 B.C one third of Rome consisted of slaves
Gaps between rich and poor increased
Increased tension in Rome
Tiberius and Gaius proposed reforms for the poor to the senate making enemies
Tiberius and Gaius are later killed
Civil war breaks out over this conflict
Pax Romana
Roman Empire consisted of 3 million square miles containing 60 - 80 million people
60 B.C.- 44 B.C
The Early Republic
600 B.C.- Etruscan became king of Rome
Last king-- Tarquin the Proud-- driven from power in 509 B.C.
Established a Republic: Power to the citizens
Citizens can vote for their leaders
Only free-born males
2 Political Groups
Patricians: wealthy landowners (minority: most power)
Plebeians: common farmers, artisans, and merchants (majority)
Tribunes: Elected by Plebeians to protect their rights.
Twelve Tables:
Written laws (12 tablets hung on Forum)
Government
Balance between Monarchy and Aristocracy
Consuls: Command army/ direct government
1 year term- cannot be elected after 10 years
Senate
300 members
Influence on foreign/domestic policy
Times of crisis: Dictator is elected
Chosen by consuls- elected by senate
Army
Legions: large military units (5000 foot soldiers with a group of horseback soldiers)
Centuries: Groups of 80 men within Legions
Made up of any male landowner
Spread of Power
With civil war in place military upheaval of the republic by generals with big legions was possible
265 B.C. Romans conquer Italy
Conquered cannot vote
Traded wine/olive oil for other raw goods through Mediterranean Sea
War with Carthage (Punic Wars) (264 B.C.)
3 wars between 264 and 146 B.C.
1. Control of Sicily/ Western Mediterranean
2. Hannibal: to avenge Carthage's defeat
Lead troops through Spain- France- and the Alps.
Defeated Romans: did not capture Rome
3. Scipio matches Hannibal
146 B.C Rome laid siege to Carthage
70 B.C. Empire from Anatolia to Spain
Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey take over
Beginning of an Empire
After Caesar's death civil war broke out
Supporter, including Caesars grandnephew and adopted son Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus joined forces crushing the assassins
43 B.C. Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus take control of Rome making up the Second triumvirate
Octavian forces Lepidus into retirement
Octavian and Antony become rivals
Antony leads troops to Anatolia and falls in love with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt
Octavian accuses Antony of plotting to rule Rome from Egypt causing a civil war
31 B.C. Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra's combines forces
Octavian becomes unchallenged ruler of Rome
Accepts the title Augustus ( exalted one)
~ 121 B.C - 60 B.C.
Art/ Language

2nd Century B.C. Romans capture Greeks
Cultural admiration: formed Greco-Roman Culture
Adapted writing and art
Art
Realistic stone portraits
Used in public education
Augustus:
Bas-relief images project from flat background
Used to tell stories, represent crowds, soldiers in battle, and lanscapes
Mosaics and painting
Many in Pompeii
Literature/ Learning
Greek philosophy
Stoicism (of Greek teacher Zeno) encouraged virtue, duty, moderation, and endurance
Followed Greek models in writing: Epics
Known for poetry/prose
Aeneid (legendary Aeneas) by Virgil
Tacitus: Roman historian- presented accurate facts
Roman Peace
Rome's Legacy
27 B.C - 180 B.C.
Language
Latin (used by Romans)
Official language of Roman Catholic Church into 20th century
Adopted by Spanish, French, Portugese, Italian, and Romanian (Romance languages)
Efficient government + able rulers
Architecture
Arches support bridges and aqueducts
Aqueducts: bring water into cities
Thomas Jefferson: Roman revival in 18th century
U.S. capitol, many state capitols under Roman influence
System of Law
Judgement system influences by Stoic philosophers
based on common sense/practical ideas:
All persons have the right to equal treatment
Considered innocent until proven guilty
Burden of proof lies with accuser, not accused
Person should be punished for actions not thoughts
Any unreasonable/unfair law should be set aside
Still used throughout Europe and the U.S.
Augustus Caesar - Ruled 31 B.C. - 14 A.D. -
Stabilized frontier
Created public buildings
Created civil services
Paid workers who managed government affairs

Civil services maintained a stable government even after Augustus's death
Agriculture and Trade
90 % of citizens were farmers
Survived on local food
Traded for luxury items
Used a common currency increasing trade
Vast trading network
Sea trade - protected by Roman navy
Land trade - complex network of roads
- Roads originally used for military purposes

Sources
Textbook:
Beck, Roger B. World History: Patterns of Interaction. Orlando, FL.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Pub., 2012. Print.
Early Italy map:
https://i0.wp.com/www.timemaps.com/store/timemaps/2011/2/italy500bc.jpg
Roman Empire map:
http://www.travelin-tigers.com/graphics/rommap07.gif
Aqueduct:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/Pont_du_Gard_Oct_2007.jpg
Bas-Relief:
http://s3.frank.itlab.us/photo-essays/small/dec_24_4639_bas_relief_1.jpg
Divided empire map
: http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/medieval/review2.php
Roman empire decline
Began in 300 AD - giant Empire and growing problems
Emperor Diocletian, reforms & divided. When he retired a civil war broke out
4 men were fighting over power, amongst them was Emperor Constantine
Moved the capital to the east part of the empire, called Byzantium (Constantinople)
Decline of the western part of the empire
- Separating form the east (Wealthier part)
- Effected by outside innovation (Barbarians)
476 AD barbarians (German) plundered Rome
East half got the name Byzantine empire and lasted 1000 years more
Society and Culture
Large gap between rich and poor
Rich had many homes, gardens, slaves, and luxury items
Poor were unemployed and had little necessities
Temples and buildings supported the poor
Crowded
Fire was a constant danger
Government gave out daily rations of grain to the poor


Gods and Goddesses
Social classes
Early Romans worshiped powerful spirits called - numina
Also worshiped Lares - gaurdian spirits of the household
Government and religion were linked
Honored deities not only in private but also in public
conducted by priests in temples
Worship of the emperor also became part of the official religion
Rise of Christianity
63 BC Roman empire conquered Judea
Around 0 Jesus in born in Bethlehem, Judea
Taught a new religion, attracted a large crowd.
29 AD emperor Pontius Pilate arrests Jesus for teaching Christianity.
Persecution of christians began after Pax Romana ended - got blam for all the problems.
313 New Emperor Constantine convect to and accepted Christianity.
Nicene Creed
Roman Emperors
A.D. 37 - A.D. 180
Caligula
37 - 41
Nero
54 - 68
Domitian
81 - 96
Nerva
96 - 98
Trajan
98 - 117
Hadrian
117 - 138
Antoninus Pius
138 - 161
Marcus Aurelias
161 - 180
Mentally disturbed
Good administrator but vicious
Murderer
Persecuted Christians
300-476 AD
Ruled dictatorially
Paranoid, executing many
700 B.C- 500 A.D.
Project by: Judith Edwards, Julie Madsen, and Tylor Kistler
Began custom of adopting heir
Empire reached greatest extent
Building program
Enlarged social welfare
Consolidated earlier conquests
Reorganized bureaucracy

Period of peace and prosperity
Height of economic prosperity
Defeated invaders
Wrote philosophy
Greek
Full transcript