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Marine Wildlife Habitats

20% Project
by

Avani Vaghela

on 29 May 2014

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Transcript of Marine Wildlife Habitats

Marine Wildlife Habitats
Marine Populations Dwindling?
Adding to mother nature's destruction patterns through storms, hurricanes, and earthquakes human activities play a part on the majority of it.
Oceanic wildlife numbers are dropping at rates much faster than are considered healthy.
Humans have much of an impact on this decrease.
Main factors would be
overfishing(commercial fishing techniques)
climate change
habitat destruction
improper disposal of waste and chemicals(ocean acidification)
accidental introduction of new species
pollution
Cities, factories, and farms create pollution, waste, and chemical runoff that directly destroy reefs, sea grass, and oceans.
Habitat Destruction
through trash and unwanted items such as fishnets and grills, animals are getting caught and dying out, which causes abnormalities in the food chain
bottom trawling
(commercial fishing), a form of fish netting, scrapes the ocean floor and damages coral reefs and catches small organisms, which are later just left to die
as more coastal projects are being put into action, such as communities and buildings on islands, significant alterations on wetland ecosystems disrupt fish nurseries and interfere with the marshland's natural ability to control and modify inland flooding
inland dams cause decreased nutrient runoff, cut off fish migration routes, turn freshwater flow, and therefore increase salinity of coastal waters
deforestation deep inland, away from shore causes erosion, sending dirt and silt into coastal waters, blocking sunlight that shallow coral reefs ne-ed to survive
Ocean Acidification
fossil-fueled machines have had great impacts and advancements for the human industry, but the consequence has been the billion of tons of carbon dioxide(CO2) and other greenhouse gases into Earth's atmosphere
over half of these emissions have been absorbed by the oceans
this absorption has benefited us by slowing down the climate changes that would have occurred if these gases remained in the air
the oceans currently absorb about a third of human-created emissions, roughly 22 tons a day
the CO2 is altering the chemistry of seawater and affecting the life cycles of marine organisms, especially those towards the bottom of the food chain
the CO2, when dissolved in the ocean, is formed into carbonic acid, which increases the acidity of water, mainly near the surface
in the past 2 centuries, the acidity has increased by about 25%
Destructive fishing types such as dynamiting, trawling, and poisoning destroy habitats both near shore and in the deep seas.
People are harvesting wildlife way to quickly before the species can replace themselves, which eventually will lead to extinction of these particular animals.
can be highly disruptive to surrounding food chains
the damage is rather complicated because the majority of the public have grown accustomed to abundant seafood sources
In this environment shown above, a rocky reef located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, overfishing has eliminated most of the local fish species.
Overfishing
This species known as the lion fish have never been seen as common in the Americas until about three decades ago.
Invasive Species
Aquatic invasive species are plants and animals that evolved in one location and are introduced through a variety of means into another location.
species have always used the oceans to travel the planet
humans and the creation of ships and boats have allowed species to act as stowaways and travel by human means
these non-native species, or invasive species can have different responses when being introduced to these new environments
they can die off
they can survive with little impact on the environment
or they can take over and harm the naturally existing wildlife in a number of ways
Why it Matters...
Bibliography-
Websites:
"http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/protect/." . N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <>
"Pacific Ocean Threats & Impacts: Invasive Species." Center for Ocean Solutions. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://www.centerforoceansolutions.org/projects/pacific-ocean-initiative/major-threats-pacific-ocean/invasive-species>.
"Threat 5: Habitat Destruction." Habitat Destruction. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://saveourseas.com/threats/habitat>.
http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2014/04/19/overfishing-remains-biggest-threat-to-mediterranean-study-confirms/
"Miranda Cosgrove Swims with Dolphins in New Oceana PSA." -- WASHINGTON, March 5, 2014 /PRNewswire/ --. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/miranda-cosgrove-swims-with-dolphins-in-new-oceana-psa-248615531.html>.
Videos:
"Why the Ocean Matters." Why the Ocean Matters. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/environment/habitats-environment/habitats-oceans-env/why-ocean-matters/>.
"A Minute in a Life with Seismic Blasts." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <
Images:
"Marine Invasive Species -- National Geographic." National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/critical-issues-marine-invasive-species/>.
"Overfishing Remains Biggest Threat to Mediterranean, Study Confirms." News Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2014/04/19/overfishing-remains-biggest-threat-to-mediterranean-study-confirms/>.
"." . N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://www.tcnj.edu/~robitso2/ocean%20waves.jpg>.
"." . N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2014. <http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-z0pN_ZMzU5E/UN_Q6LCxmhI/AAAAAAAAFvE/D8aICB-aBHo/s1600/hurricane.gif>.
"Would You Consider Going Vegan For Me?." Ha Tea n Danger. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2014. <http:hateandanger.wordpress.com/2012/05/01/would-you-consider-going-vegan-for-me/>.
Seismic Blasts
Dolphins and whales are highly social and intelligent animals.
They depend almost entirely on sound to communicate, eat, reproduce, socialize, and live.
Their normal sound patterns are interrupted and disturbed by the seismic air blasts that emit very loud noises.
Seismic are gun testing is a form of gas and oil exploration process that sounds much like repetitive dynamite blasts underwater.
Rising Sea Levels
over the past century, the average sea level has risen over 4-8 inches
the burning of fossil fuels and other human and natural activities release large amounts of heat- trapping gases into the atmosphere
^^these emissions have caused the earth's temperature to significantly rise, and the ocean absorbs about 80% of this heat
thermal expansion- when water heats up, it expands
melting of glaciers and polar ice caps
As sea levels rise, there can be dreadful coastal impacts.
destructive erosion, flooded wetlands, contamination of agricultural soils, loss of habitat for fish, birds, and plants
"Sea Level Rise -- National Geographic." National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/critical-issues-sea-level-rise/?source=A-to-Z>.
"Sea Temperature Rise -- National Geographic." National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2014. <http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/critical-issues-sea-temperature-rise/?source=A-to-Z>.
"Environmental issues with coral reefs." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 5 Nov. 2014. Web. 23 May 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_issues_with_coral_reefs>.
Increased Sea Temperatures
^Example of a climate model- Predictions are made
that higher sea temperatures caused by global change will lead to more frequent and more severe hurricane activity.
global warming caused by human activities that emit heat-trapping carbon dioxide has raised the average global temperature by about 0.18 degrees Farenheit
this warming occured from the surface to the depth of about 2,300 ft (where most of the marine life thrives)
the most vulnerable ocean species is coral
it will bleach and cause growth to slow
another organism affected is krill- they reproduce is much smaller numbers when ocean temperatures rise- this will lead to food shortages for higher predators
will lead to higher sea leves, stronger, more common storms, and the spread of invasive species and marine diseases
reefs are threatened beyond coastal areas
coral reefs are dying due to atmospheric changes, ultraviolet light, viruses, and impacts of dust storms
due just because of overfishing
compared to the 12% of land protected by natural park services
the amount of protected land is decreasing due to recreational purposes
=72% of Earth
impacts on wildlife-
^baby sea turtle caught in fishing net
dead staghorn coral due to bleaching thorugh chemicals and oxygen level changes
oil spill^
Take Action:
Although a large toll has drastically taken it's toll on aquatic environments, the small changes we make can still make a difference in the long-run!
reduce energy use(mind carbon footprint)
use more reusable plastics
pick up trash/litter on beaches to prevent further garbage in the seas
buy ocean-friendly products
make sustainable seafood choices
support organizations workign to protect oceans
travel oceans responsibly
by Avani Vaghela
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