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Britain in the Middle East - The Young Turks

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Katja Novakovic

on 9 February 2011

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Transcript of Britain in the Middle East - The Young Turks

The Young Turks from 1908 to 1918 restored constitution of 1876 policy of Ottomanism spirit of unity new reform programs members of Ottoman elite Young Turk Revolution of 1908 Japan as role model modern military power defeated Russia in war of 1904-1905 2 separate protest groups exiles in Paris and Geneva restore constitution of 1876 condemned tyranny of Abdul Hamid’s regime students in military-medical academy Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) in 1889 products of European-style schools restoration of constitutional regime uncovered by Abdul Hamid's spies between 1895-1896 stricter censorship Sultan Abdul Hamid II distrust of organized institutions quality of military equipment deteriorated salaries declined heavily oppressive policies undermined strength of army Revolt in summer of 1908 group of officers from Third Army Macedonia deposed by shaykh al-Islam exiled to Slovakia 1st Phase of Young Turk period (1909-1913) manipulation of parliamentary elections CUP in full control of government increasingly oppressive after 1913 unparalleled intellectual freedom expanded primary and secondary education system improved army firing personnel on the state payroll alienated important groups within Ottoman society policies after 1909 Concept of Ottomanism constitutional government abolished millet system Turkish cultural movement Alternative to CUP: Arabism literary clubs, reform societies, and clandestine organizations political protest and cultural affirmation political decentralization, cultural autonomy and replacement of CUP regime End Occupation of Constantinople in 1919 CUP ministry resigned dissolution of parliament in 1920 Revolutionary Results creation of new governing elite deposition of Sultan Abdul Hamid II CUP emerging as new power center in Ottoman politics
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