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Unit 3: The New Nation - Washington to Monroe

The learner will identify, investigate and assess the effectiveness of the institutions of the emerging republic.
by

Jennifer Byrd

on 29 September 2016

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Transcript of Unit 3: The New Nation - Washington to Monroe

Unit 3: The New Nation:

Washington to Monroe
(1789- 1820)
George Washington unanimously elected as the first president by the electoral college. (Only white, male landowners could vote (suffrage) in any elections.)
Washington creates the first
Cabinet
Sect. of State: Thomas Jefferson
Sect. of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Sect. of War: Henry Knox
Judiciary Act
of 1789
Set up a Supreme Court with 9 justices
Established a system of lower courts
1st Chief Justice:
John Jay
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
Designed to help establish the US on a sound financial footing. It sparked opposition because it favored wealthy businessmen over farmers. Jefferson’s opposition helped spark the development of the first
two-party system.

1.
Funding national debt
4.
Protective
tariff
2.
Assumption of state debts
5.
National
bank
3.
Whiskey Tax

The struggle between federal and state power exploded when Pennsylvania frontier farmers, in protest of the whiskey tax, began to riot. They tarred and feathered federal revenue collectors and burned their homes. In a clear display of federal supremacy, 15,000 militia were sent to break it up. The farmers disbanded, and the federal government proved that federal law would be upheld.
The Whiskey Rebellion was the first general uprising against the new government.
Major Concept: Early Foreign Policy
The
French Revolution
Initially, many Americans supported it --
until the
Reign of Terror
began.
Development of Political Parties

Because
Spain
owned all of the land west of the Mississippi River, Washington was concerned that we might lose the right to use the river. Fearing a closer relationship growing between the US and Britain, Spain agreed to give the US navigation rights to the
Mississippi, right of deposit in New Orleans, and ceded a large part of northern Florida.
Strong central government
Fear of mob rule
Republic led by an educated elite
Economy based on manufacturing, commerce, and shipping
National bank
Loose interpretation of the Constitution
Pro-British
Supporters included lawyers, merchants, and manufacturers
Hamilton’s supporters became
Federalists
Hamilton
Favored state and local sovereignty
Fear of absolute federal power
Democracy of farmers and tradesmen
Economy based on agriculture
Opposed a national bank
Strict interpretation of the Constitution
Pro-French
Supporters included farmers and tradesmen
Supporters became Democratic-Republicans
Favored state and local sovereignty
Fear of absolute federal power
Democracy of farmers and tradesmen
Economy based on agriculture
Opposed a national bank
Strict interpretation of the Constitution
Pro-French
Supporters included farmers and tradesmen
Supporters became
Democratic-Republicans
Jefferson
Jefferson
believed the national bank was

unconstitutional
because the Constitution
did not specifically give Congress the authority
to create such a bank.
He also believed that the bank would be an agent
for the wealthy.

The belief that the government may only do what is
explicitly stated in the Constitution is called

strict
interpretation” or “
strict
construction”.
(NOTE: Jefferson will later practice his own loose
interpretation.)
Hamilton
believed that a national bank was
both necessary and constitutional.
He believed that the “
necessary and proper

or “
elastic”
clause (Article 1, Section 8) gave
Congress the authority to create a bank.
He argued that, because Congress had the
power to collect taxes and issue money, it
needed a bank in which to carry out these powers.
That the Constitution is open to interpretation
is called “
loose interpretation
” or

loose construction
”. (Use of
implied powers
.)
=
President Washington sides with Hamilton, and supports the formation of the 1st Bank of the United States.
Washington’s
Farewell Address
After two terms, Washington was ready to step down.
Before he left he offered these warnings to the US:
Avoid “
permanent entangling alliances
” with foreign countries
Avoid “
partisan strife
” (e.g. conflicting political parties)
Avoid
sectionalism
See ya...wouldn't
wanna be ya!!
Election of 1796
Federalist
John Adams
(Washington’s V-P) was
chosen president, and Democratic-Republican
Thomas Jefferson
, who got the second highest
number of votes, became his vice-president.
(
12th
Amendment will fix that later!)


Adams’s presidency was preoccupied with an undeclared war with France and domestic
problems concerning civil liberties. (Quasi-war)
Because of the political strife in France, many of its citizens fled to America. Many of these flocked to the Democratic-Republican party, threatening the strength of the Federalists.
In response, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed laws in 1798 -- the
Alien and Sedition Acts
-- in an attempt to hurt the Democratic-Republicans.
Alien Acts

Naturalization Act
– lengthened the residence period to become a citizen to 14 years.
2 Alien Acts
– allowed “dangerous aliens to be detained or deported.
Sedition Act


Restricted
free speech
and press, making it illegal to publish or say, “…false, scandalous, or malicious…” criticism of high gov’t. officials. Ten people were convicted, with 3-9 months in jail, and $200-$400 fines.
These were clearly blatant violations of the
1st Amendment.
In response, Jefferson and Madison drew up resolutions condemning the acts:

Jefferson’s was presented to the Kentucky legislature and Madison’s were presented to the Virginia legislature. Other states did not follow suit and these were not implemented, but they
did protest the Federalists and paved the way for Jefferson’s campaign for presidency.
Virginia Resolution
Adopted in 1798. It stressed the “
compact theory
” – that the 13 states created the gov’t. and had established a contract.
Thus, the states could determine the limits on the federal gov’t.
Written by
Madison
Kentucky Resolution
Also stressed the compact theory, but went even further to say that states had the right to
nullify
laws that denied citizens’ rights.
Written by
Jefferson
President Adams also experienced
diplomatic
trouble but was able to avoid war:
Angry with the US over the Jay Treaty and our abandonment of the Franco-American Alliance of 1778,
France began seizing US ships
. Knowing the US was in no condition for war, Adams sent John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and Charles Pinckney to negotiate.
They were met by 3 agents, referred to by American newspaper as X, Y, and Z, who demanded $250,000 just to meet with French Foreign Minister Talleyrand.

The US refused, crying, “
Millions for defense; not one cent for tribute!”
The US prepared for possible war, and an undeclared naval war continued for two years. In his wisdom, Adams kept the US out of war and negotiated the Convention of 1800, in which the US terminated the Alliance of 1778 and gave up claims for shipping losses.
Bonjour!
Show me the
money!!
I'm only 5'4!
Election of 1800
The election of 1800 is often referred to as the “
Revolution of 1800
”, because it marked the
peaceful passage of power from one political party to another.
Republican Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied in electoral votes, sending the election to the House of Representatives. Partly because of Hamilton’s influence, Jefferson won, making Burr his vice-president. (This helped lead to the 1804 duel between Hamilton and Burr and also led to the
12th
Amendment, which provided for separate balloting for president and vice-president.)
In his inaugural address, Jefferson called for “peace” between the political parties.
Jefferson ushered in what is called “
Jeffersonian Democracy
” in which he sought to adhere to “republican philosophy.” He practiced
laissez-faire...
“We are all Federalists;
we are all Republicans!”
In the wee hours, prior to leaving office, Adams appointed a number of judges to cram as many Federalists in power as he could. These are referred to as the “
midnight judges
”.
Jefferson was determined NOT to give them their
appointments. This led to a landmark case:


Marbury v. Madison
Chief Justice
John Marshall (FEDERALIST!!)
ruled Marbury’s claim was invalid because part of the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional.
Thus, Marshall established the principle of
judicial review
– the power of the court to declare laws unconstitutional.
(This gave a great deal of power to the courts, and allowed continued Federalist influence for years to come.)
Gibbons v. Ogden
: Only Congress has the authority
to regulate interstate commerce.

McCulloch v. Maryland
: Supremacy of the federal government over the states.

Fletcher v. Peck
: Sanctity of contracts; supremacy of feds over states.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
: Sanctity of contracts

Marshall greatly strengthened the power of the federal
government over the states.
Major Concept: Conflict with Native Americans
Americans had routinely pushed Native Americans off their land throughout the colonial period. The British-imposed
Proclamation of 1763
forbade migration west of the Appalachian Mts., but after the Revolutionary War, Native Americans lost British protection and were subject to further encroachment by Americans. Some Native Americans did try to fight for their land, but to little avail.
Native Americans in the frontier attacked settlers, supposedly with British encouragement. In 1794 General “Mad” Anthony Wayne defeated Little Turtle and Blue Jacket in the
Battle of Fallen Timbers
.
Tecumseh
, a Shawnee Indian, felt the best way to stop white encroachment was to form an Indian confederation. With his brother, Tenskwatawa – the Prophet – he tried to convince his people there was power in numbers. But in 1811, General William Henry Harrison attacked their encampment at the Battle of
Tippecanoe
and the confederation ended. Tecumseh died fighting with the British at the Battle of the
Thames
in 1814.
LAND
remains the primary reason for the struggle between settlers and Native Americans.
This led to the
Treaty of Greenville
in 1796, in which the Indians were forced to cede much of the Northwest Territory and paved the way for westward expansion.
Sorry, Tom. Gotta
go with Alex on this one...
Crud!!
LOL!!
Major Concept: The status of slavery during the Federalist
period.
Although the American Revolution was fought to preserve the
“natural rights of man” and for freedom, slavery continued for
years to come.
About 5,000 freemen served in the army and navy –
mostly in New England. Slaves were not allowed to fight in
the South. By the end of the Revolutionary period, slavery
had nearly ended in the North. Anti-slavery or abolitionist
societies sprang up around the country, seeking the
emancipation of slaves.
The South, however, was another story.
In 1787, Congress arranged for the slave trade to be abolished. Many believed that slavery would die out on its own.

However....
The 1793 invention of the
cotton gin
by
Eli
Whitney
ensured that slavery was to end no time soon. This
machine could clean up to 50 pounds of cotton per day,
guaranteeing that slaves would still be in high demand to help
keep up with increased production.
The South's "peculiar institution"
Prior to 1830
In the South, slavery was defended as a “
necessary evil
” because of the importance of cotton as a US cash crop.
After 1830
The South began defending slavery as a “
positive good
”. The increasing abolitionist movement, the success of “
King Cotton
”, the monetary value of slaves and racism led to this change in defense tactics.
Major Concept:
The place of women in society during the Federalist period

Women did not obtain the social status implied by the goals of the revolution. Some did dare to challenge the inequality of women, notably Abigail Adams. This did little, however. Women had relative few rights, and certainly could not vote. Mississippi was the first state to allow women to own property in their name (with their husbands’ permission!) and that was not until 1839.
Women’s rights activism will go hand in hand with the abolitionist movement, and will not come into its own right until 1848 with the Seneca Falls Convention

"Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors..."

(And maybe do a little laundry, and clean the kitchen once in awhile, and pick up your socks…and, I don’t know…maybe let us VOTE??!!!)

--Abigail Adams

Major Concept:
Early foreign policy
Like Adams, Jefferson was faced with
serious diplomatic problems.
In 1803, fighting renewed between Britain and France. Britain had proved itself the commander of the seas, while France appeared to be the superior land force.

With neither side willing to give up its edge, they resorted to a commercial war.
American merchant ships were subject to the decrees of Britain and France and BOTH sides frequently seized US ships and their cargo!!
Are you chicken or what?!
Get in your stinky little boats
and come get us!!
In addition, the British also
practiced
impressment
of American sailors
when searching for deserters from the
British navy.
Americans cried for war, but Jefferson was still not ready. He asked Congress to pass the
Embargo
Act in 1807
.
This law suspended all American trade, hurting New England commerce and western farmers. After public outcry, it was replaced in 1809 with the
Non-Intercourse Act
,
which outlawed trade with ONLY Britain and France.
In 1810, Congress passed
Macon's

Bill #2,
which stated that if France promised the US neutral shipping, the US would STOP trade with Britain...and vice-versa!! Napoleon jumped on this offer, but had NO intention of keeping his word!! WHY????
In 1807, the British warship HMS Leopard demanded that the US naval frigate
Chesapeake
allow the British to come aboard and search for deserters. When American commander James Barron refused, the Leopard opened fire, killing three Americans and wounding 18.
Causes of the War of 1812
(2nd War for Independence; Mr. Madison's War)
1)
Warhawks
in Congress like John C. Calhoun (SC) and Henry Clay (Ken) blamed the British for renewed Indian attacks in the West, and they hoped to acquire Canada.
2)
Attacking neutral American shipping
; "freedom of the seas"; the Chesapeake
3)
Impressment
of American sailors into the British navy; American honor

Hi! We're Warhawks!!!
June 1, 1812: Madison asked Congress to declare war on Great Britain, although the US was poorly prepared. The vote reflected sectional and political divisions. The commercial northern Federalist states opposed it, while southern and western states were for it.
Key Battles
Lake Erie -- Oliver Hazard Perry wins a huge naval battle.
Battle of the Thames -- Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison defeats Brits; Techumseh dies
Battle of Washington -- British burn the White House; Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner as he watches the bombardment of Fort McHenry
Battle of New Orleans -- Gen. Andrew Jackson wins a HUGE victory, but the
Treaty of Ghent
had already been signed.
**The treaty restores everything back to the way it was before the war (status quo, ante bellum); but the war had GREAT impact on the US

I’m Dolly Madison…
Watch me save George
Washington’s portrait!
Effects of the War of 1812
Sectionalism

The war had been opposed by New England; in fact,
many continued trading illegally.
In December 1815, a secret meeting
called the Hartford Convention of 5 New England states. Seeking regional action against the war and possibly secession, it suggested amendments but amounted to little, as the Treaty of Ghent had already been signed.
The Hartford Convention helped lead to
the decline of the Federalist party.
Nationalism


A final stand against Britain affirmed our political and economic independence and led to gradually improving relations with Britain.
Native Americans were weakened without their British ally, paving the way for westward expansion.
The decline of the Federalist party led to greater political unity in the country.
A new group of war heroes emerged as national political prospects.
Domestic manufacturing increased due to decline of trade during the war.
Respect

The US held its own against the most powerful country in the world. The rest of the world had new respect for the US.
Under President Monroe and his Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, several crucial foreign policies were instituted:

Britain and the US agreed to joint-occupation of the
Oregon
territory, with the boundary established at the
49th parallel.
1819 – Florida became part of the US with the
Adams-Onis
Treaty.

When other countries tried to get the US involved in their affairs, Monroe and Adams issued the
Monroe Doctrine
President Monroe issued a warning to European powers:

There would be no more
colonization
by Europe in the western hemisphere (North or South America)

There would be no more
interference
by European powers in the western hemisphere.

Begins a period of
isolationism
, in which the US wanted to be uninvolved in global affairs.

Because of the war with France, Britain had restricted American trade and practiced
IMPRESSMENT
of sailors into the British navy. Sometimes, American sailors were taken and forced into service. Also, Britain had not removed many of the troops who were stationed in western forts in the US. Chief Justice Jay negotiated a treaty in which the British agreed to give up control of western posts within two years, established America's claim for damages from British ship seizures, and provided America a limited right to trade in the West Indies. Did NOT guarantee anything, OR agree to stop impressment!

Many saw the treaty as a failure but the Senate ratified it anyway. So WHY is it important??
Averted war with Britain (temporarily!)
Indirectly led to the Pinckney Treaty
As France and Britain became embroiled in war, the US tried to stay out of it. An ambassador from France, Citizen Edmond Genet, came to the US to seek support, despite Washington’s official position. Genet was recalled, and Washington issued the
Proclamation of Neutrality
(1793).
Napoleon
(He's a BEAST!)
+
=
Yay me!!!
Green
Era of
Good Feelings
The Alien and Sedition Acts, along with the Hartford Convention, led to the death of the Federalist party. With only one political party (Dem-Reps) and with the new sense of nationalism after the War of 1812, the Era of Good Feelings came about. There seemed to be little political bickering and no major foreign problems existed.
But not for long...sectionalism, tariffs, states' rights, and slavery were simmering beneath the surface!!
Henry Clay of Kentucky
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
Doh....I'm a hawk!
VOCABULARY ALERT!!!!

LAISSEZ-FAIRE
VOCABULARY ALERT!!!!

EMBARGO
1806 -
Berlin Decree
- Napoleon declared his own paper blockade of the British Isle and barred British ships from ports under French control.
1807 - The
Milan Decree
ruled that neutral ships that complied with the British orders in council were subject to seizure when they reached continental ports. This was Napoleon's "
Continental System."
Orders in Council - 1807
Edicts that forbade British trade with France; included all British allies AND neutrals. Closed European ports to foreign shipping unless they stopped first in a British port
Complete stoppage of trade
??
Because Napoleon was a
!!
Send a tweet to your "Congressman" with your opinion
about the Embargo Act!
BUT!!!!! As badly as the Embargo Act hurt US trade, it HELPED us in the long run by
increasing American manufacturing and self-sufficiency
!!
I can has war...
But who IZ I Fighting?
Hmmm.....Britain or France?? Britain or France????? What say ye all??? BTW....I'm James Madison; TJ's Sect. of State. I was elected Prez in 1808. Yay me!!!
But in the short run....the US is getting smacked around by both Britain and France. Americans demand our honor be restored....
Nullification --
Vocabulary Alert!!!
To make null and void; specifically, a law
XYZ Affair
Jefferson will double the size of the US with the Louisiana Purchase....stay tuned!!!
Yep...that
was all me. I
did that.
Yay me!!
Vocabulary Alert!!!


isolationism

Whiskey Rebellion -- 1794
Ham..........Goose
Goose rhymes with loose...Get it???
***** Draw a quick political cartoon concerning the Alien and Sedition Acts and/or the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions!!
Interactive Standards:
pp. 5-7
Jay Treaty -- 1794
Pinckney Treaty -- 1795
(Treaty of San Lorenzo
Pfffft...
Whatev...
Hands-off policy by the govern-
ment (no regulation); especially concerning economics
Woo hoo!! More
power for the courts
and the federal gov't!!
Landmark Rulings under the
Marshall
Court
Boats are for sissies!!
Come fight us on the land
if you dare!!

Right on...
He has the reflexes
of a cat!
Heck, yes he's
a beast!
The Whiskey Rebellion was Washington's biggest
domestic
problem....
domestic
Vocabulary Alert!
existing inside of a country; not foreign
He will also have several
diplomatic
issues....
Vocabulary Alert!
diplomatic
concerning the management
of international relationships
Dang it!
Vocabulary Alert!
impressment
the forcible enlistment
into military service
1816 -- James Monroe was elected president
A country's lack of involvement in international affairs
Full transcript