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Transcript of Jazz 1
The Birth of Jazz
Melting pot of sound
Most cosmopolitan city in the South
French- Spanish-American port
African, Latin, Caribbean rhythm, Gospel, military brass bands
Black refugee from the cotton fields of Mississippi into the city for better paying job- brought
oans, cries, bent notes
- also being played at church to helps find hope in a trouble-world-
-call and response structure; preacher and congregation talk back and forth
-12 bar blues-
infinite number of variations and emotion
Choose 1 questions and make up your own question(s) (What questions have you raised?)
Why do you think jazz was born in America? Could it have been invented in a different country? At a different time in history?
How did the cosmopolitan aspects of New Orleans lead to the development of jazz? Could jazz have been created outside of a major city with diverse cultures and influences? How does jazz reflect American pluralism?
What are the qualities or characteristics of jazz that make it a unique form of self-expression? Are there parallels with other art forms? What do you think the musical freedom of improvisation has to do with the historical events during the time when jazz was developed?
Do you think you can enjoy jazz music without an appreciation of its history and origins? Why or why not?
When West African brought music and traditions - African percussion influenced American music.
-Slave work songs were created in the African tradition
Telling a story- a song leader and the workers
Communication through song
- secret messages across in the lyrics
Soulful spirituals- express their religious beliefs, feelings and desire for freedom.
Spirituals and work songs are part of the foundation of the American art form, known as jazz.
Early 1890s the blues emerged from these traditions.
- Immigrates influenced music in the United States.
Scott Joplin combined European compositional styles with the rhythmic and melodic music that came from the black community
- To "rag" a song meant to drag out certain notes or
- rearrange music to make it livelier and danceable.
- some called it "syncopation gone mad..and infections disease"
-Remained more popular music for a quarter of a century
-Refers to the era (1865-1877) of social and political rebuilding
- Freedom for African American
- Abolishing slavery (13th amendment, 1865)
- Granting ex-slaves citizenship (14th amendment, 1868))
- Right to vote (15th amendment, 1870)
- New freedoms, widespread racial violence
- Ground work for the civil rights movement of the 1950s, 60s
America, "the land of opportunity" "New World"
- French quadrilles, Spanish flamenco, Irish jigs,
German waltzes and many more
American Civil War (1861-1865)
Jim Crow law (1876 and 1965)
-Segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated.
- Homer Adolph deliberately got himself arrested in hopes of overturning segregation laws
- 1896 the US Supreme Court ruled 'separate but equal facilities' were constitutional
- The decision and the system of discrimination grew more
- affected black people in the American South, in New Orleans for nearly 60 years
A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a white male because it implied being socially equal. Obviously, a black male could not offer his hand or any other part of his body to a white woman, because he risked being accused of rape.
Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them.
Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended whites.
Impact on music
-Creoles now classified with other African Americans as Second- class citizens
-Creoles musicians replaced by white musicians and had to compete for work with the less well-trained black musicians
Europeans immigrated to "the land of opportunity." in mid to late 1800s.
French quadrilles, Spanish flamenco, Irish jigs, German waltzes and many more influenced the way music was being played in the United States.