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Understanding Your Self
Transcript of Understanding Your Self
So what's the curse?
From self-awareness to self-evaluation maintenance
The Self: Yours, Mine, Ours
Sedkides & Skowronski (1997)
The Selfish Neocortex
The self is an "...ever-changing narratives generated by our brain to provide a coherent framework to organize the output of all the factors that contribute to our thoughts and behaviors." - Bruce Hood
The self-system evolved in order for us to succeed socially.
Self-evaluation Maintenance Theory
Inflated self-views --> Narcissism
I cnduo't bvleiee taht I culod aulaclty uesdtannrd waht I was rdnaieg. Unisg the icndeblire pweor of the hmuan mnid, aocdcrnig to rseecrah at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mttaer in waht oderr the lterets in a wrod are, the olny irpoamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rhgit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whoutit a pboerlm. Tihs is bucseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey ltteer by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Aaznmig, huh? Yaeh and I awlyas tghhuot slelinpg was ipmorantt! See if yuor fdreins can raed tihs too
Can you read this?
Now I remember...
What's mine is...
What's in a name?
It's my way, or...
Perceived Threats to Our Need for Uniqueness
People who had a larger number of personalized items on or in their car were 16% more likely to engage in road rage
- Szlemko et al., 2008
What's my motivation?
That's me! Or is it...
“I am not what I think I am and I am not what you think I am; I am what I think that you think I am.”
- C. H. Cooley (1902)
Sources of Self
Own vs. Other
Types of Self
Valence of Self
Inclusion of Other in Self
Self-expansion Model (Aron & Aron, 1990)
Then there's that other need...
We hold illusions about
Our Qualities (e.g., "Above average effect")
Our Abilities (e.g., "Planning Fallacy")
Our Actions (e.g., "Self-serving Bias")
Our Biases (e.g., "Bias blind spot")
Self-deception strategies: Self-enhancement motives > self-verification motives
Our need to enhance our self can have negative consequences for ourselves and our relationships
Self-esteem is maintained by two processes: SOCIAL REFLECTION and SOCIAL COMPARISON
What determines if you choose reflection or comparison: RELEVANCE & CERTAINTY
If threatened by the social comparison you have two choices: DEVALUE RELATIONSHIP or DEVALUE ACHIEVEMENT DOMAIN
It's all about YOU
It'll taste better
Personal involvement in food preparation rituals made people rate their food as tastier than when they merely observed the ritual or there was no ritual or involvement (Vohs et al., 2013).
Need for Positive Self-Regard
AKA The Pygmalion Effect
A = "I am the leader"
B = "Praise me"
C = "Ignore me"
D = "Explain things to me"
Class Mean: 3.18, Range: 1-5.73
Class: 40.5% Low & 35.1% High
Can you tell what this is a picture of?
What is a self-concept? And how can it vary in complexity and clarity?
What is the difference between levels of self-awareness (and who/which animal exhibits them - be sure you have the sub-levels of objective self-awareness too)?
What is self-determination theory? (Know difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.)
What is a self-construal? And how can it be relational or independent?
What are some of the social sources of selves (e.g., looking-glass selves, multiple selves, inclusion-of-other-in-self/self-expansion theory, etc.)
What is the need for uniqueness (and how is it connected to self-esteem)?
What does neuroscience tell us about the Self? Is it an illusion? Where is the self in the brain?
How does personal involvement affect our opinions of things (e.g. who we like/where we live: implicit egotism, what we buy: endowment effect, how good a meal was or whether we go road rage: self-expressive consumption, whether we want to do something: self-determination theory)?
What is self-esteem? (And how does having high self-esteem affect how we address challenges – if we do? Think of ways high self-esteem - especially narcissism - is not as great as we think. See video at the end of the self prezi.)
What are different self-deception strategies we use to maintain our self-esteem (e.g.,: self-serving bias, above average effect, false consensus, false uniqueness, planning fallacy, illusions of control, bias blind spots, downward social comparisons. self-handicapping, self-enhancing over self-verifying)?
How are social desirability and strategic self-presentation connected? Including how it might be connected to destructive self-presentation (doing anything to fit in)
What is Self-evaluation Maintenance theory? What sort of behavior does it predict? Know how relevance and certainty affect the likelihood to engage in social reflection (e.g., BIRGing) vs. social comparison (and thus choosing to devalue relationships or devalue goal importance).
Tera defines herself primarily in terms of her relationships to others (e.g., a friend, a daughter...). Social psychologists would say that Tera:
A. Is a high self-monitor
B. Has multiple selves
C. Has a relational self-construal
D. Is high in self-complexity
Tyrone's twin brother Tyler was just selected, over him, to be the class president. Both young men had long aspired to be involved in politics, making success in this aspect of their lives very important to their self-concept but they are young and so the future is uncertain. Which theory or effect would predict that Tyrone might sabotage Tyler's success?
A. Inclusion-of-other-in-self (aka: Self-expansion theory)
B. The Pygmalion effect
C. The self-reference effect
D. Self-evaluation Maintenance theory
Cortical Midline Structures