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Introduction to Rhetoric
Transcript of Introduction to Rhetoric
the available means of
persuasion in a particular
situation." 1. "Faculty" = an improvable art...
improving your ABILITY! 2. "Finding" = does not necessarily mean using. 3. "Available means" = EVERYTHING a writer/speaker might do with language. 4. "Persuasion" = the writer's/speaker's aim to affect people's thoughts and actions Sometimes you are successful...
Sometimes you are not.... it is all about your effectiveness of understanding and utilizing rhetoric to the best of your ability To sum it up..... Rhetoric is the art of being a critical reader in order to find the ways that a writer or speaker uses language to shape people's thoughts and ideas leading to action Reading critically is searching for EVERYTHING the writer does in order to be persuasive in a given situation and striving to understand the impact these items have on the situation. What is Reading Critically??? The Situation Exigence Speaker Audience Purpose Something sticking in the craw of the writer that needs speaking or writing about What we know about the speaker/writer and their personal situation must be considered in order to fully understand the use of rhetorical techniques We must be certain that we consider ALL audiences. Most situations have both a primary and secondary audience in mind. What is the goal that the speaker or writer wants to achieve. Every rhetorical move they make works to achieve that purpose Rhetorical Triangle Visual representation of the interaction among subject, speaker and audience as well as the structure and language of the argument - that is, a text or image that establishes a position Audience Subject Speaker TONE Pathos Tugging at the heart strings/feelings of your readers/viewers Why is this a good example of pathos? What feelings do you feel? What are you thinking? Uses positive connotations of words (greatest, wonderful, grand) Generally propagandistic in purpose becasue an effective speaker/writer understands the power of evoking a reader/viewers emotions Ethos Credibility Speaker/writer uses their authority or knowledge base to show they are trustworthy. What ethos appeals are at work? Who are the people in the ad?
What does that say about the
product being sold? The speaker's reputation immediately establishes ethos. But reputation must also come with knowledge,
expertise, training, sincerity, or a combination of these. Logos What information do you see and hear in these commercials that makes it contain logos? Has a clear main idea, or thesis, with specific details, examples, facts, statistics, or expert testimony. In writing a general way to appeal to logos
is to acknowledge a counterargument - that is,
to anticipate objections or opposing views. 1. Writer/speaker's apparent attitude toward the subject matter and/or issue. 2. Tone is established
in the nuances of a text 3. You infer tone by examining the arrangement
and style of a text - diction, syntax, imagery, figurative language What is the tone of this clip? Now see how the same
subject can be altered by
just changed the tone... In reading a text, the tone
might not be so obvious so
it is up to you to really be
CRITICAL READERS!!! ORGANIZATION Arrangement, Organization, Structure - the way the text is set up How can the text be divided into parts? * What is the function of each part?
* How are they the same?
* How are they different? Tropes and Schemes Tropes = Diction Schemes = Syntax Rhetorical techniques/strategies which impact the meaning of the words used.
* Alliteration * Metonymy *Repetition
* Aphorism * Oxymoron * Simile
* Euphemism * Parable * Synecdoche
* Hyperbole * Paradox
* Irony * Personification
* Metaphor * Pun Rhetorical techniques/strategies which keep the traditional meaning of the words, but change, instead, the arrangement and structure.
* Alliteration * Parallelism
* Repetition * Parenthesis
* Antithesis *Ellipsis
*Climax *Anaphora 1. What the text means.
2. What are the primary and secondary purposes.
3. What effect the author intended.
4. Why the author was compelled to write.
5. What are the primary and secondary sources used. Things to Determine Rhetorical Framework Exigence (the need to write) Audience Purpose (intention) Logos Ethos Pathos Organization Diction Syntax Imagery Figurative Lang. Rhetorical
Appeals Surface Features