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Evolution of the Atom

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Victor Mach

on 30 May 2013

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Transcript of Evolution of the Atom

Evolution of the Atom At first, everyone thought that what they saw was all there was to it.... By Victor Mach ...until people started to explore its true depths. Experiment The two philosophers did not have the tools to conduct any physical experiments
They instead did "mind experiments"
Among one of the mind experiments is to use a very sharp knife and continually cut an apple in half
- Could you cut the apple indefinitely without end? Can an apple be cut indefinitely? Am I even doing this right? Democritus
Everything is composed of "atoms", which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible
Between atoms lies empty space
Atoms are indestructible
Atoms have been and always will be moving
There are different kinds of atoms that differ in size and shape, but remains spherical Deduction and Theory of Atoms I call this the Continuous Theory of Matter! Plato
Five different kinds of matter (the Five Platonic solids)
- earth, water, fire, air, Cosmos
Composed from plane figures
-isosceles and scalene right triangles
Matter is infinite in size Look at how much more
advanced my theory looks compared to his! This proves that I am right! I call this the Discontinuous Theory of Matter! Influence from their Work Plato: 427 BC - 347 BC
Born in Athens, died in Athens
Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer, founder of the Academy of Athens Prior Knowledge I'm Plato! A greek philosopher better than Democritus himself! Plato and Democritus Philosophical Model I'm Democritus! A greek philosopher who brought upon the theory of the existence of atoms! P.S. I'm better than Plato; his theories are just dumb! Atoms allowed the study of chemistry
Atoms paved way for the deeper understanding of scientific properties of the world
Theory of atoms paved way for further research and is foundation of EVERY known atomic model (duh!).
- Dalton, J.J. Thompson, Rutherford, Bohr,
Schrodinger atomic models
Atoms influenced creations of modern technology
Atoms is the foundation of the modern era
Atoms influenced Parmenidis' philosophy - "logic" Billiard Ball Model John Dalton 1766 - 1844
Born in Cockermouth, died in Manchester
English chemist, meteorologist and physicist
Best known for scientific pioneering
- Research on color blindness
- Development of modern atomic theory I'm the one who developed the first ever MODERN atomic theory! That's right; I'm awesome. Prior Knowledge Plato and Democritus - Continuous and discontinuous Theories of Matter
Roger Bacon - The first to formulate and advocate the use of the scientific method (1260)
Alchemists - The first chemists who tried to turn base metals into gold, find a universal solvent, and find the elixir of life. They developed many experimental methods and built an extensive body of chemical data (1400 - 1650)
Antoine Lavoisier - Law of the Conservation of Matter (Mass): matter cannot be created nor destroyed, only rearranged (1744)
Joseph Proust - Law of Definite Composition/Proportions: a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions (ratios) by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound. Experiment Dalton was interested in the study of meteorology, which brought him into the study of gases
He performed a series of experiments on mixtures of gases to determine what effect properties of the individual gases had on the properties of the mixture as a whole
- He measured the amount of water vapor that air
could absorb at different temperatures How can water and air occupy the same space at the same time, when obviously solid bodies can't? Deduction and Theory of Atoms Atoms make up all matter
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, nor can they be destroyed. They can simply be rearranged into different groups
Atoms of a given element are identical, while atoms of a different elements vary and can be distinguished from one another using their respective weights
Atoms combine with or separate from other atoms to form compounds in chemical reactions
- Chemical reactions can be explained by the union and
separation of atoms, and that these atoms have
characteristic properties
Atoms of different elements form compounds in whole number ratios I call this the Dalton Atomic Model! Or the Billiard Ball Model... either one works. In chemical reactions, atoms are neither created nor are they destroyed; Law of Conservation of Matter
A pure compound is always composed of identical elements and always has the same mass; Law of Definite Composition
Atoms combine in whole number ratios to form compounds and if these proportions differ, so will the compound; Law of Multiple Proportions My theory proved all of these laws! I should have a title for my awesomeness! Influence from their Work He was the first to associate the ancient idea of atoms with stoichiometry, which assisted in the study of chemistry
Provided the basis for other scientists to form their ideas on
Dalton's initial model lead to the evolution of the model of the atom
- J.J. Thomson invents Plum Pudding Model
- Rutherford performs the gold foil
experiment and discovers the nucleus
- Bohr therefore clarified that the electron
either emits or absorbs energy in order
to move to different orbits John Dalton created me! I'm the basis of every model of the atom! Plumb Pudding Model J.J. Thompson 1856 - 1940
Born in Cheetham Hill, died in Cambridge
British physicist and Nobel laureate
Credited with discovering electrons and isotopes Prior Knowledge William Crookes - provided the first evidence of the existence of electrons using “Crookes Tube” (vacuum tubes). He called the particles/radiation he observed cathode rays (1877)
William Roentgen - Experimented with these cathode tubes; discovered x-rays (1895)
Henry Becquerel - Studied materials that glowed in the dark; discovered Uranium rays (natural radiation). These rays were more powerful than x-rays (1896)
Pierre and Marie Curie - Discovered other radioactive materials and that radiation is a property of heavy elements (1898) Democritus: 460 BC - 370 BC
Born in Abdera, died in Athens
Pre-Socratic philosopher, "scientist"
Formulated the existence of atoms There was no information known about the atom Experiment Experimented with "invisible" particles by using magnets with the cathode ray tubes
- These particles would be deflected by a negative
electric field
- Thus the ray "invisible particles" have a
negative charged particle which were embedded
into the positive atom (the electrons) Deduction and Theory of Atoms Cathode rays are made up of two atoms
- Energy: high energy electromagnetic radiation
- Particles: sharp edges in shadows (bent the particles)
Realized that electrons were part of all matter
Proposed the Plumb Pudding Model of the atom
- The volume is mostly made of the larger positive portion
- The smaller electrons are like the raisins, spread throughout
the positive mass to keep the charge's neutrality I'm smart, AND I can make accurate and delicious models of my theory! Can I get any cooler than this? Influence from their Work His non-mathematical atomic theory — unlike early quantum theory — could be used to account for chemical bonding and molecular structure
Discovery of the electron revolutionized the modern atomic theory
Discovery of electron pivotal to the development and paved way for many new discoveries of the atom
Influenced invention of the mass spectrometer: allows the determination of the mass-to-charge ratio of ions and which has become a universal research tool in chemistry
Influenced invention of the light bulb: allows revolutionary light source J.J. Thompson's "electrons" helped create me! I'm now the basis to the modern world! Nuclear Model Ernest Rutherford 1871 - 1937
Born in Brightwater, died in Cambridge
British chemist and physicist
Father of Nuclear Physics
The greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday (a scientist of electromagnetism) Prior Knowledge Max Planck – Found that light emitted by solids, heated to various temperatures, was the same color and proposed that light has particle-like properties (1900)
Albert Einstein – Discovered that radiation is emitted or absorbed only in whole numbers of photons (1905)
Robert Millikan - calculates the charge of an electron and determines an electron’s mass (1909) Experiment Would the results of my experiment show alpha particles going straight through? What should I do with my life if Thompson's actually right? ? Sent alpha particles through sheets of metals
Among one of them is the famous "Gold Foil Experiment"
- Fired alpha particles (He2+) at gold foil through a slit
- Measured the deflection of the particles as they came
out the other side
Tested the validity of Thompson's Plumb Pudding Model Delicious! But is it right? Deduction and Theory of Atoms Found that most of the alpha particles he shot at the foil were not deflected at all
- They passed through the foil and emerged undisturbed
Alpha particles shot were scattered at huge angles
- A few of them bounced back directly upon hitting the foil
Nucleus was discovered
- Result lead him to believe that most of the foil was made of empty
space, but had extremely small, dense lumps of matter inside
Nuclear Model developed
– A very small charged nucleus in center of atom
- Contains much of the atom's mass
- Orbited by low-mass electrons Actual Result Aha! You were WRONG Thompson! I shall call this... the Rutherford Model! Now I just need to make my atomic model delicious... Influence of their Work Physicists now used particle scattering in many ways to learn about matter, and have had much success in studying solids
Idea of controlled nuclear chain reactions
- Creation of the atomic bomb and other nuclear weapons
Artificial nuclear transmutation allowed for nuclear plants
- Modern generation of electricity
In general paved way for modern use of nuclear physics
Nuclear model remains valid to this very day Planetary Model Niels Bohr 1885 - 1962
Born in Copenhagen, died in Copenhagen
Danish physicist, philosopher, footballer
Made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics Hey you there! Believe it or not, I'm the creator of the model you use all the time in chemistry class! Pretty impressive, huh? Prior Knowledge Robert Bunsen - Found that when heated, different elements produced different colors in a flame (1856)
Max Planck - assumed that the radiation energy is emitted in discrete packets called quanta rather than in a continuous way (1900)
Henry Moseley – Discovered that the positive charge of the nucleus increases by one unit from one element to the next. He proposes that the elements in the periodic table be arranged in order of increasing atomic number instead of atomic mass (1911) I take the Atomic Theory to a whole new level by introducing a whole new part to the atom! Let's see if anyone can top that! I'm the greatest scientist ever! Well, only for Nuclear Physics... but still, they don't give the title "Father of Nuclear Physics" to just anyone! Experiment Worked with Rutherford with the experiments leading to the Nuclear model (explained more in detail on Rutherford's slide)
Experimented with cathode rays to determine behavior of electrons (explained more in detail on J.J. Thompson's slide)
He adapted Rutherford's nuclear structure to Max Planck's quantum theory and got the Bohr model as the result Cathode Ray Experiment Gold Foil Experiment + + Planck's Quantum Theory = Bohr Model I'm so smart... and original! Deduction and Theory of Atoms Electrons orbit the nucleus, as proposed in Rutherford's model
Electrons can make transitions between the orbits allowed by quantum mechanics by absorbing or emitting exactly the energy difference between the orbits
- Electrons could drop from a higher-energy orbit to a lower one
and vice versa depending on energy level of electron
As electrons "jump energy levels," they emit a quantum of discrete energy (photons), given in the form of light
Electrons orbit the nucleus
- Proposed that “electrons travel only in certain successively larger orbits
- Outer orbits could hold more electrons than the inner ones
- These outer orbits determine the atom's chemical properties Influence of their work Boron Revolutionized the study and teaching of chemistry (in schools) up to modern day
- Determining elements
- Determining the amount of atomic and sub-atomic
particles of elements
Influenced the creation of the atomic bomb
Influenced further research of atomic physics Glad to see students are learning chemistry by using my model! I make chemistry teachers' jobs so much easier! You're welcome, Mr. Caesar! Erwin Schrödinger Quantum Mechanical Model 1887 - 1961
Born in Vienna, died in Vienna
Austrian physicist
Developer of a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory
Author of many works in various fields of physics They should name me "The Father of Physics," since I contribute so much to that field! Prior Knowledge Louis de Broglie - Proposes the concept of matter waves. If waves (light) can have particle-like properties as proposed by Planck and Einstein, then maybe matter can have wave like properties (1924) Experiment Experiments were done theoretically
- Analyzed the electron orbits in an atom from a geometric
point of view
- Used methods developed by the mathematician Hermann Weyl
Based his experiment on the hypothesis of light quanta and considerations of energy and momentum My experiment may seem boring, but it works! On the bright side, I'm the first physicist to use math to create a model! Deduction and Theory of Atoms Shown that quantum orbits are associated with certain geometric properties
- Could be used to predicting some of the features of wave mechanics
"Derivation" of the wave equation for time independent systems
- Showed that it gave the correct energy eigenvalues for atoms
(geometric movement)
Quantum Mechanical Model created
- The electron is a wave as well as a particle
- Describes the regions in space, or orbitals, where electrons are
most likely to be found
- Size of the orbit was described by the n quantum number
Three coordinates that come from Schrödinger's wave equations are the principal (n), angular (l), and magnetic (m) quantum numbers
- These quantum numbers describe the size, shape, and orientation in
space of the orbitals on an atom Influence of his Work Created a revolution in quantum mechanics and indeed of all physics and chemistry
Influenced creation of the lazer
Influenced creation of transistors
Important contribution to theoretical physics
Influenced discovery to the DNA double helix bond
Schrödinger's wave equation could describe everything from atomic and subatomic systems to electrons and atoms. It also could describe macroscopic system and possibly the whole universe Wow! My wave equation is like the answer to the world! This definitely makes me the best! And who said mental experiments couldn't replace physicals experiment? Resources "History of Atoms." History of Atoms. N.p., n.d. Web. 18Feb. 2013.
"History of Chemistry." History of Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
"Joseph John Thomson." Homepage of the Chemical Heritage Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013.
"Joseph John Thomson." Joseph John Thomson. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013.
"Ms J's Chemistry Class." : Atom Models and Periodic Trands. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013.
"Niels Henrik David Bohr." Bohr_Niels Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013.
"Plato." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
"The Scientists: Ernest Rutherford." The Scientists: Ernest Rutherford. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.
"Thomson Model (English)." Thomson Model (English). N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
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