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The brain and body
Transcript of The brain and body
are made up of 4 basic parts:
, which is located at the rear of your head, at the base of your skull. It is involved in the most basic processes of the human body (breathing, heart rate, etc.)
The brain is made up out of 3 parts:
, controls posture, balance and voluntary movements. It makes sure that we stay balanced, coordinated and gets us where we want to go.
One of the most important parts of the midbrain is called the RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS).
, is like a message center for the brain, sending the right messages to the right places at the right times. It acts as a relay station that controls all of the information sent to and from the cortex.
As previously stated, each hemisphere controls the activities on the opposite sides of the bodies, but inside each hemisphere are other parts of the brain that affect how we behave. Some of them include:
is where visual images are processed. Everything you see gets sent to your occipital lobe for decoding before the rest of your brain figures out what you are looking at (all in a fraction of a second remember).
lobes of the brain
is the part of the body that contains all of glands (along with their messages). It's main job is to send chemical messages to and from the brain through the use of chemicals. These chemicals are called hormones.
The brain and body:
The brain is composed of 2 nervous systems:
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
, which is composed of your brain and your spinal cord.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
, which is made up of everything (besides your brain and spinal cord) else.
The brain and the spinal cord are partners in everything that they do.
are reactions, produced in your spinal cord, that are meant for survival purposes.
Reflexes often happen before the signal for what's happening even gets to our brain. Example: Hot stove.
Broken down into 2 parts:
somatic nervous system
is composed of your sensory and motor nerves, and is responsible for voluntary activities, such as note-taking.
autonomic nervous system
ontrols all of the automatic processes of the body, breathing, blinking, etc.
autonomic nervous system
is also composed of 2 parts:
ympathetic nervous system
helps prepare you for emergencies or strenuous activity.
parasympathetic nervous system
works to calm you down after an emergency or strenuous activity.
DEFINITION: Neurons are long, thin cells that carry messages to and from the brain. They work like a string of firecrackers, carrying the message from one cell to the next, until it reaches your brain.
, which contains the nucleus.
, which are the tree-like part of the neuron, that receives messages from other neurons and sends them to the cell body.
carry the impulse of the message from the cell body to the axon terminal.
releases neurotransmitters to stimulate the dendrite of the next neuron.
help to carry the messages across synapses (the space between the neurons). Some neurotransmitters even help with pain, these are called
, they are our body's natural form of pain relief.
, which is right in the middle of the brain, it controls sensory information.
, is at top and the front of our brains. The forebrain includes the brain's central core. Nothing on earth can match the forebrain's processing power.
, which controls our breathing, our heart rate and a variety of reflexes.
, functions as a bridge between the spinal cord and the brain. It's also responsible for producing the chemicals that we need in order to sleep.
is a net-like structure at the top of our spinal cord, and at the base of the brain that sends impulses from the brain to the body and from the body to the brain.
The RAS also helps to regulate how sleepy or awake we are.
Drugs that are used for surgeries usually slow down the RAS so much that it doesn't send the signals for pain to your brain, so it will not alert your brain about the pain that your body knows you are experiencing.
Directly below the thalamus is the
), it controls rage, hunger, thirst and sexual desire. It also controls how your body handles temperature.
is the outermost layer of the brain (
, as in the bark of a tree). We know of nothing in the world that can match it's processing power (not even a computer).
It also contains the
right and left hemispheres
of the brain. These are divided by a
(a depression that separates the 2 halves of the brain). Each side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body.
, which is a bundle of nerve fibers, located right between the 2 hemispheres. It appears to help the 2 halves of your brain communicate with one another.
controls rage and aggression.
is used to form new memories. It's not where new memories are stored, but it is where they are created. (
clip-sorry about the cussing in advance.)
is just behind your forehead and it allows you to re-experience things that have happened in the past.
: This is why people often look up when they are trying to remember something: Like when someone is taking a test, they look up to try to remember the answer, they are unconscously looking up to try to access the
of their brain.
I have a few quick activities that will help you understand the differences between the hemispheres. :)
frontal association area
is also located within the forebrain. It seems to have a very complex task, as it's job is to tell us what to do, how to react to things, and what to feel in different situations. It would appear that the core of personality is located in this area.
of how we learned more about the frontal association area and how it affects us socially is with an RR accident that happened in the 1840s to a man named Phineas Gage.
deals with sensory information from all over our body. It also houses out
(which controls every sensation we have).
helps us make sense of what we hear. It also helps us with memory, emotions and speaking (although speaking itself is located in another area of the brain).
deals with organization, planning and thinking. It also houses the
(which controls every movement that we make).
are chemicals that carry messages through our bodies in our blood. The word "
" actually means "
", which is exactly what hormones do, they turn on certain parts of our body at certain times.
is the master gland (and it sits right at the center of the endocrine system).
It has 2 jobs
It sends messages to other glands to get them started.
It determines how tall we will be by regulating our growth hormones.
lies right inside the neck and looks like a bowtie on diagrams. It's main job is to control our
, which is the rate at which our bodies operate and use energy.