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The brain and body

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by

Shay Briggs-Sternaman

on 21 November 2016

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Transcript of The brain and body

Neurons
are made up of 4 basic parts:
Neurons
:

1. The
HINDBRAIN
, which is located at the rear of your head, at the base of your skull. It is involved in the most basic processes of the human body (breathing, heart rate, etc.)
The brain is made up out of 3 parts:
1) The
CEREBELLUM
, controls posture, balance and voluntary movements. It makes sure that we stay balanced, coordinated and gets us where we want to go.
The
Hindbrain
contains:
One of the most important parts of the midbrain is called the RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM (RAS).
The
Midbrain
contains:
The
thalamus
, is like a message center for the brain, sending the right messages to the right places at the right times. It acts as a relay station that controls all of the information sent to and from the cortex.
The
forebrain
contains:
As previously stated, each hemisphere controls the activities on the opposite sides of the bodies, but inside each hemisphere are other parts of the brain that affect how we behave. Some of them include:
The
forebrain
continued:
1) The
occipital lobe
is where visual images are processed. Everything you see gets sent to your occipital lobe for decoding before the rest of your brain figures out what you are looking at (all in a fraction of a second remember).
4 major
lobes of the brain
:
The
endocrine system
is the part of the body that contains all of glands (along with their messages). It's main job is to send chemical messages to and from the brain through the use of chemicals. These chemicals are called hormones.
The
endocrine system
:
The brain and body:
The brain is composed of 2 nervous systems:
1. The
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
, which is composed of your brain and your spinal cord.

2. The
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
, which is made up of everything (besides your brain and spinal cord) else.
The brain and the spinal cord are partners in everything that they do.
Reflexes
are reactions, produced in your spinal cord, that are meant for survival purposes.
Reflexes often happen before the signal for what's happening even gets to our brain. Example: Hot stove.
Broken down into 2 parts:
1) The
somatic nervous system
is composed of your sensory and motor nerves, and is responsible for voluntary activities, such as note-taking.

2) The

autonomic nervous system
c
ontrols all of the automatic processes of the body, breathing, blinking, etc.
The
autonomic nervous system
is also composed of 2 parts:

1. The
s
ympathetic nervous system
helps prepare you for emergencies or strenuous activity.

2. The
parasympathetic nervous system
works to calm you down after an emergency or strenuous activity.
DEFINITION: Neurons are long, thin cells that carry messages to and from the brain. They work like a string of firecrackers, carrying the message from one cell to the next, until it reaches your brain.
1. The
CELL BODY
, which contains the nucleus.
2. The
DENDRITES
, which are the tree-like part of the neuron, that receives messages from other neurons and sends them to the cell body.
3.
AXONS
carry the impulse of the message from the cell body to the axon terminal.
4. The
AXON TERMINAL
releases neurotransmitters to stimulate the dendrite of the next neuron.
Neurotransmitters
help to carry the messages across synapses (the space between the neurons). Some neurotransmitters even help with pain, these are called
ENDORPHINS
, they are our body's natural form of pain relief.
2. The
MIDBRAIN
, which is right in the middle of the brain, it controls sensory information.
3. The
FOREBRAIN
, is at top and the front of our brains. The forebrain includes the brain's central core. Nothing on earth can match the forebrain's processing power.
2) The
MEDULLA
, which controls our breathing, our heart rate and a variety of reflexes.
3) The
PONS
, functions as a bridge between the spinal cord and the brain. It's also responsible for producing the chemicals that we need in order to sleep.
The
RAS
is a net-like structure at the top of our spinal cord, and at the base of the brain that sends impulses from the brain to the body and from the body to the brain.
The RAS also helps to regulate how sleepy or awake we are.
Drugs that are used for surgeries usually slow down the RAS so much that it doesn't send the signals for pain to your brain, so it will not alert your brain about the pain that your body knows you are experiencing.
Directly below the thalamus is the
hypothalamus
(
hypo
means
below
), it controls rage, hunger, thirst and sexual desire. It also controls how your body handles temperature.
The

cerebral cortex
is the outermost layer of the brain (
cerebral
means
bark
, as in the bark of a tree). We know of nothing in the world that can match it's processing power (not even a computer).
It also contains the
right and left hemispheres
of the brain. These are divided by a
fissure
(a depression that separates the 2 halves of the brain). Each side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body.
The
corpus callosum
, which is a bundle of nerve fibers, located right between the 2 hemispheres. It appears to help the 2 halves of your brain communicate with one another.
The
amygdala
controls rage and aggression.
The
hippocampus
is used to form new memories. It's not where new memories are stored, but it is where they are created. (
Example
: See
Memento
clip-sorry about the cussing in advance.)
The
pre-frontal area
is just behind your forehead and it allows you to re-experience things that have happened in the past.
Example
: This is why people often look up when they are trying to remember something: Like when someone is taking a test, they look up to try to remember the answer, they are unconscously looking up to try to access the
pre-frontal area
of their brain.
I have a few quick activities that will help you understand the differences between the hemispheres. :)
The
frontal association area
is also located within the forebrain. It seems to have a very complex task, as it's job is to tell us what to do, how to react to things, and what to feel in different situations. It would appear that the core of personality is located in this area.
A tragic
example
of how we learned more about the frontal association area and how it affects us socially is with an RR accident that happened in the 1840s to a man named Phineas Gage.
2) The
parietal lobe
deals with sensory information from all over our body. It also houses out
sensory strip
(which controls every sensation we have).
3) The
temporal lobe
helps us make sense of what we hear. It also helps us with memory, emotions and speaking (although speaking itself is located in another area of the brain).
4) The
frontal lobe
deals with organization, planning and thinking. It also houses the
motor strip
(which controls every movement that we make).
Hormones
are chemicals that carry messages through our bodies in our blood. The word "
hormone
" actually means "
to activate
", which is exactly what hormones do, they turn on certain parts of our body at certain times.
The
pituitary gland
is the master gland (and it sits right at the center of the endocrine system).
It has 2 jobs
:
1)
It sends messages to other glands to get them started.
2)
It determines how tall we will be by regulating our growth hormones.
The
thyroid gland
lies right inside the neck and looks like a bowtie on diagrams. It's main job is to control our
metabolism
, which is the rate at which our bodies operate and use energy.
Full transcript