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Homefront During World War I

Differences between Central and Ally Powers

Ben Hill

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Homefront During World War I

sffadsf By The Cool MacTeam! + Sarah World War I
Home Fronts Home
Fronts Social/ Cultural Political Economic Factories/ war efforts Shortages and rationing Funding the war Propaganda Gender and Racial issues Anti-war groups Legislation Drafts and Conscription Political groups Great Britain United States America's Role in WWI France Russia Austria- Hungary Germany
1. Disenchantment
-Three changes of Commander-in-Chief (Joffre-Nivelle-Pétain)
-The Nivelle Offensive - end the war quickly - failed (breaking through the front)
-Plan XVII was also unsuccessful (invasion of Germany)
-850,000 from 1.5 million infrantry (due to new tech)
-Alsace-Lorraine (rich in coal) territory.
-Longer (Longest battle: Battle of Verdun: approximately 10 months long)
2. Where war was fought in relation to countries
3. People in favor of war vs resistance movements
-Alsace-Lorraine (rich in coal) territory.
-Moroccan Crises (rich in a number of different minerals)
-Bound to helping Russia.
-Payback for Franco-Prussian War (losing territories)
-Mutinies - Nivelle Offensive (1917).

-Men up to age of 45 were conscripted due to increasing loss of life (Pop. problem)
-58% of steel production and 40% of coal production was occupied by Germany
-America supplied France which helped them be happy.
6. Propaganda
-Joseph Joffre - “Savior of France” - dismissed - (Battle of the Marne), but was “promoted” to Marshall of France in order to keep public opinion positive.
-Mutinies of 1917 - secret. Even now there are some documents regarding the mutinies which will not be revealed until 2017.
-Old prime minister arrested - advocating peace negotiations "The Western Front" "The Eastern Front"
-2 million soldiers killed or missing
-Longer Sieges than ever
-Authorities vs. civilians
-Nicholas II vs. Alexandra (Rasputin?)
2. Where war was fought in relation to countries
-Siege of Leningrad (lasted over 2 years) ("New Cooking")
-Cold Weather
-Eastern Front
3. People in favor of war vs resistance movements
-Bound to defend Serbia
-They weren't prepared to fight a war and many realized this – October Revolution allowed them to leave the war.
-Martial law - sieges
-Evacuations to east
-Government had less and less power (cause backlash of Revolution)
-Treaty of Brest-Litovsk allowed Germany to win on Eastern front.
5. Economics: Factories, Shortages, Rationing
-Rationing updated regularly.
-Electricity was banned in sieged cities' houses
-When people died, people scrambled for their ration card
-Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant as well as others were converted into tank producing factories.
-Many agricultural factories were made into war machine factories which caused food shortages.

-Anyone who disagreed with Rasputin was dismissed in favor of less competent, but more loyal, leaders.
-October Revolution caused complete demolition of wanting to be in war. Fought on soil?

Public Opinion?

Drafts Shortages

Propaganda Direct Impact of War First time civilians were targeted in the war-
German Zeppelin Raids
German naval blockades and raids Public Opinion No-Conscription Fellowship
Anti-German feelings
Persecution of dachshunds

The Unseen Hand What did we get ourselves into? Originally had widespread support for the war
Many believed war would be over by Christmas 1914
After Battle of the Marne, obvious that it would not be a quick war, true reality of modern war set in.
Despised and Rejected by AT Fitzroy and Not: A Prophetic Comedy by Rose Macaula Economics Shortages and Rationing?- Not until later in the war.
Voluntary ration- failure
By 1918, started to limit sugar, meat, butter, cheese, and margarine
Increasing need for human resources -> women rose in the workforce Legislation of War D
A efense f the ealm ct Didn’t allow people to: talk about naval or military matters in public places, spread rumors about military matters, buy binoculars, trespass on railway lines or bridges, melt down gold and silver, light bonfires or fireworks, give bread to horses or chicken, use invisible ink when writing abroad, buy brandy or whisky in a railway refreshment room, or ring church bells. Also, the government was given the ability to: take over any factory or workshop, try any civilian breaking laws, take over any land, and censor newspapers. What about drafts?
•During the first two years, 3,000,000 men volunteered to fight in the war. However, heavy losses caused the Government to pass the Military Service Act, introducing conscription to the nation. P
A Lord Northcliffe's newspapers
Politicians and the manipulated public opinion
Official Secrets Act
Different forms of propaganda:
photos, newsreels, national newspapers Forms of Propaganda Civil defense was not very important- Atlantic Ocean served as shield PATRIOTISM Zimmerman telegraph
Eager to join the war LEGISLATIONS OF WAR Selective Service Committee In 1914, America had a modern navy and very small army. Needed to build army for war- forced conscription
High success rate for draft, few "draft-dodgers"
First American draft?
Selective Service Act vs Civil War Draft vs. DISILLUSIONMENT Americans later regretted their decision
The Beat Generation America's Wartime Economy Herbert Hoover:
The Great Engineer
"Food will win the war"
Meatless Mondays, Wheatless
Wednesdays, "when in doubt,
eat potatoes" Large agricultural/industrial output
War purchases by Allies created booming economy
No need for rations
War bonds- McAdoo
War Industries Board and National War Labor Board (1918)
AFL vs Wobblies P
A Creel Committee
Mediums: newsprint, posters, radio, telegraph, cable and movies
"Four Minute Men"
American Protective League
Espionage Act (1917)
Sedition Act (1918) P

N -Western front
-Trenches 4. DRAFTS/ LEGISLATION 5. Economics: Factories, Shortages, Rationing 4. DRAFTS AND LEGISLATION 1. disenchantment 6. PROPAGANDA "We'll get them! The 2nd National Defense Loan. Subscribe." "Subscribe to the 5 1/2 % War loan and pave the way to victory." disenchantment - Germans generally supportive of the war at first
- They thought that the war would be over by 1914
- Morale dropped after the blockade started
- Supplies given to army first, not civilians.
- German Revolution of 1918
- 2.1 million military deaths and 430,000 civilian deaths location economics - since the military was in control of the government, all resources were focused on the army - actually had a good economy with many resources, but the blockade cut off their access to some that were badly needed for ammunition and other war necessities draft - by the end of the war, the German government was drafting men who were very young and barely trained due to heavy loses. Questions?
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