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Evolution of Mermaids

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Emma Dowd

on 21 October 2014

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Transcript of Evolution of Mermaids

Prominent phalanges and opposable thumbs
Carnivorous teeth
Convergent Evolution
Evolution of Mermaids
Carnivorous teeth in aquatic mammals is a favoured phenotype.
Gives the mermaid an advantage against predators/prey.
Able to tear raw flesh
Carnivorous Teeth
Vestigial Traits
Frequency Dependent Evolution
Prominent Phalanges
- Negative Frequency Dependent (Apostatic Selection)
- Positive Frequency Dependent
Advantage to rare phenotypes
Advantage to common phenotypes
Negative
Self-incompatibility alleles

-Prevent self-fertilization
- Encourage Allogamy
- Mermaid tail colour, shape & size


AESTHETIC FEATURES
Hair colour
Tail
SKILLS & ABILITY
Skill set
Courtship display
Intersexual Selection

(mate choice)
HAIR
Cospeciation
TAILS
COURTSHIP
SKILL SET
Sex Ratio

- Ratio of males to females in a population
- Parents producing males in female dominant population will be fitter


Positive
Certain hair colours are more appealing than others
E.g. Blonde/brunette hair could be considered more attractive than red hair
Colour, luster, size & shape are attributed to degree of 'attractiveness'

Females are more likely to choose 'healthier' males (determined by colour and shine of tail) --> The Hamilton & Zuk Hypothesis
Ability to effectively & efficiently hunt and gather food is important for survival, impressing potential mate & nourishing offspring
Courtship display is important for impressing a potential partner and showing off ornaments (e.g. tail)
The mermaid has evolved to have prominent phalanges and opposable thumbs like that of an ape.
This adds an advantage in an ocean environment being a smaller animal.
Able to craft tools/weapons in the use of hunting/protection.
Ward off predators etc.
Where one species depends on its host for survival
Image:
http://www.usmagazine.com/entertainment/news/mermaid-body-found-special-fools-viewers-2012177 2012
Lice
- Parasitism
- More suited to mermaid skin
- Similar, but separate species to those on whales
Image
: funny-pictures.picphotos.net 2009
Barnacles
- Similar to those on whales
- Mutualism
- Mermaids provide transport
- Mermaids receive defense
Image: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/travel/news/photos-e6frg8ro-1226607492564?page=19&nk=c510926630b173cdf8228220bf1bff63
2001
Image: http://www.oceanwideimages.com/categories.asp?cID=375 2014
Image http://digital-art-gallery.com/picture/8455 2009
Image: http://soniagarciaart.blogspot.com.au 2011
Image Source: http://pirates.wikia.com/wiki/Mermaid
Image Source: http://growingupbryce.com/category/strictly-supernatural/
Arranz mail, P., Aguliar de Soto, N., Madsen, P.T., Brito, A., Bordes, F. & Johnson, M. P. (2011). Following a Foraging Fish-Finder: Diel Habitat Use of Blainville's Beaked Whales Revealed by Echolocation. Journal of PLOS, 57, 5647-5657. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028353

Bejder, L., & Hall, B. K. (2002). Limbs in Whales and Limblessness in other Vertebrates: Mechanisms of evolutionary and developmental transformation and loss. Evolution & Development, 4(6), 445-458. doi:10.1046/j.1525-142X.2002.02033.



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Available at: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
[Accessed 16 10 2014].

References:
Image: Alien Disclosure Group
Image: karlshuker.blogspot.com

Remnant Hind Limbs
Remnant pelvic girdle, tarsals and metatarsals present
Vertical axial undulation has replaced bipedal locamotion as feet lost functionality in water (positive selection)
As hind limbs became vestigial, flukes as secondary structures formed
Remnant Hind Limbs
External Ear Canal
Image: www.rollitup.org
External Ear Canal
http://galleries.neaq.org/
Remnant external ear connected to vestigial bands of muscle
Internal ear canal and tympanic membrane evolved to detect the high-pitch signal of other mermaids, replacing remnant external ear
Full transcript