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leyla atilano iglesias

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Transcript of GAS AND OIL

International Industry

Upstream / Downstream

Finding Oil

Drilling / Pipelines

Offshore / Onshore


Natural Gas / Petrochemicals

The derrick supports the lifting equipment and the drill string.
The pipes stand in the pipe rack before they go into the hole.
The drill bit rotates and drill through rocks.
The mud pump sends mud down to the bit.
The drilling mud is mixture of clay, water and other materials.
Rock cuttings come up to the surface with the mud.
Who are the people in a typical drilling crew?


Are often the youngest people in a drilling crew. They clean, maintain, move equipment and help the other workers.
They disconnect or connect the heavy drill pipes and put them into the hole.
Works high up on the monkey board about 25 meters above the floor. He guides the top part of the drill pipe.
Supervises and trains the drilling crew. He controls the speed of the drill, which must not be too fast or too slow.
The rig manager or toolpusher:
Is the most senior person in the drilling crew. He makes sure the crew has all the right equipment. He is responsible for their safety and for paperwork.
The first well drilled in order to explore for oil in Mexico was drilled in Papantla Veracruz at a depth of 40 meters. This well was drilled in 1869, without success in drilling as it does not produce oil.

Over 60% of all new oil and gas wells are drilled by using fracking.
On average, the fluid consists of 8 million liters of water which amounts to about the daily consumption of 65,000 people.
200,000 liters of chemicals.

Natural gas
Petrochemicals are chemicals derivated from petroleum and/or natural gas.
Some petrochemicals can be obtained from different sources

There are three types of Petrochemicals
 Olefins which is obtained via catalytic cracking
Aromatics, which are obtained via catalytic reforming
Syngas, “Synthesis gas” is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, used to make different producs, such as ammonia.
Most commercial petrochemicals and some of its derivatives

 Polyethylene
 Ethanol
 Ethylene glycol
-Engine coolant
 Vinyl acetate
 Vinyl chloride
-Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Isopropyl alcohol

 Ethylbenzene
Polystyrene. One of the most used plastics, and can be seen virtually everywhere, from food packaging to CD ROM encasings, also it is not biodegradable.
 Cyclohexane
-Adipic Acid

Benzoic acid

Toluene, methylbenzene, can be used as solvent
 Para xylene
-Dimethyl terephthalate

 Isophtalyc acid
-Unsaturated polyester

Mixed xylenes
Meta xylenes
To the year 2013 the top ten (from a list of fifty) most important petrochemical producers are.
3. Dow Chemical
5. Royal Dutch/Shell
6. ExxonMobil
7. Formosa Plastics
8. Lyondellbasell
9. DuPoint
10. Ineos

Petrochemical Production
According to the article 27 from the constitution in the branch of Oil, in the article 3, section III stablish that:
“All basic petrochemicals are part of the oil industry, which covers:
Elaboration, transport, storage, distribution and sales from first hand of those oil and gas derivatives, which are susceptible to serve as raw industrial material and which constitutes basic petrochemical, which are listed below:
- Ethane
- Propane
- Butane
- Pentane
- Hexane
- Heptane
- Nafta
- Methane
Whenever it comes from hydrocarbons, obtained from basins located in national territory and are used as raw materials for petrochemical industrial processes”

Mexican company ranked 50 - Alpek

Other petrochemical producers in Mexico are, Quimobasicos, PEMEX, and Policyd.

Petrochemicals in Mexico
Naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.
It is colorless, shapeless and odorless.
Natural Gas is mostly compose of Methane (CH4)
Natural gas can also contain lesser amounts of ethane, propane, butane, and others.
When it is condensated is referred as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).

What is natural gas?
Associated Gas.
Non Associated Gas.

Natural gas classification
How is natural gas found?
Inspecting and mapping
Testing cuttings and core samples
Running a seismic survey 
Examining all known geological information about the area
Measuring the wells flow rate

How is natural gas distribute?
The gas field produces gas
It comes out of the ground as a vapor
The liquefaction facility liquefied the gas
The LNG goes into the tanks
The tanks store the gas
The tankers transport the LNG from the producing region to the consuming region
The LNG goes from the tanker into tanks for storage
The vaporizers vaporize the LNG
The pipe line system carries the gas to consumers.
Homes, businesses, power station, and so on consume the gas.

Natural Gas Production World Wide
The top 10 natural gas producers in 2013 were (in billion cubic meters per year):
1) United States 689 (19.8%),
2) Russia 671 (19.3%)
3)Qatar 161 (4.6%)
4) Iran 159 (4.6%)
5) Canada 155 (4.5%)
6) China 115 (3.3%)
7) Norway 109 (3.1%)
8) Netherlands 86 (2.5%)
9) Saudi Arabia 84 (2.4%)
10) Algeria 80 (2.3%)
out of total world production of 3 479 billion cubic meters.

Natural gas in Mexico
Mexico occupied the 16th place in the world.
With 53.96 billion cubic meters production per year.
It represent the 1.5% of the world share.
There are four Natural Gas distributors registered in the Mexican Association of Natural Gas (AMGN in Spanish):  Gas Natural, Compañía Mexicana de Gas, Compañía Nacional de Gas and Maxi Gas Natural.
The largest one is Gas Natural.
In 2010 the contributed with the 29% of the energy consumed in Mexico.

International Industry
Considered to be the biggest sector in the world in terms of dollar value, the oil and gas industry is a global powerhouse employing hundreds of thousands of workers worldwide as well as generating hundreds of billions of dollars globally each year.
It's estimated that 30 billion barrels are consumed globally each year. Oil also accounts for a significant percentage of energy consumption regionally from
for Europe and Asia,
for North America,
for Africa,
for South and
for the Middle East.
In our country, Mexico, the oil and gas production is:

2,562,000 Barrels (BBL) /day, located in the tenth place of the share of the world, leading in the first three places: Russia, Saudi Arabia and United States.

53,960,000,000 m3 per year, located in the sixteenth place of the share of the world, leading in the first three places: United States, Russia and Iran.

The oil and gas industry can be broken down into two key areas:

Upstream and downstream
The Upstream involves search for underwater and underground natural gas fields or crude oil fields and the drilling to recover oil and gas.
Downstream refers to the filtering of the raw materials to different forms including: natural gas, diesel oil, petrol, gasoline, lubricants, kerosene, jet fuel, asphalt, heating oil, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as well as a number of other types of petrochemicals.
The upstream sector is used to refer to the search for, followed by the recovery and production of, crude oil and natural gas.
This sector is also widely known as the exploration and production (E&P) sector.
Stages within the upstream petroleum-product industry include the search for underground or underwater oil and gas fields, the drilling of exploratory wells and, if the wells are deemed economically viable and recoverable, the operation of wells that bring crude oil and raw natural gas to the well’s surface.
This sector covers drilling of exploratory wells & subsequently drilling & operating the wells that recover & bring the crude oil/or raw gas to the surface
Conducting the geological & geophysical (G&G) surveys required to explore possible sites.
Includes searching for potential underground or underwater crude oil & natural gas fields.
Involves obtaining leases & permissions from the land owners to drill.
Conduct geological & geophysical (G&G) surveys required to explore.
G&G surveys can be uncertain so drilling one or more exploratory well may happen, which can become very costly.

Being as efficient & cost effective as possible with materials, time & labor in the recovery of the oil & gas.
Gathering and short term storage of the oil & gas.
Plug & abandonment, which marks the end of a well, can be anywhere from a few months to decades later, depending on the size of the underground/water field.

The business side of the upstream section is complex & risky. It is truly a high risk, high reward situation. It is greatly affected by outside forces like political instabilities in the US or abroad, international conflicts, & even seasonal weather patterns. This sector is highly regulated by governments & environmental entities. The technology is continuously growing & changing because of these regulations. The oil & gas industry is always looking for hardworking, skilled workers in all fields to keep up with these changes.
The upstream sector is arguably the most complex of the up, mid and downstream sectors. However, the boundaries between the three sectors can become blurred & not clearly defined.

Mexico's Upstream: an industry overview
It is widely agreed that Mexico’s current situation in the production of oil derives from the declination of its oil reservoirs, the production of which was carried out with conventional technology and therefore at low costs. An illustration of the above is the declination in the production of Mexico’s gigantic oil field –Cantarell– back in 2003/4 . However, there have been other decisions (i.e. managerial, operative and regulatory) which have in turn contributed to deepen the urgent need of implementing various measures so as to compensate such fall.
The oil and gas operations that take place after the production phase.
Erick Alarcón Arturo Molinar
Laura Muñóz
Jeimy Castillo
The downstream sector commonly refers to the refining of petroleum crude oil and the processing and purifying of raw natural gas, as well as the marketing and distribution of products derived from crude oil and natural gas.
Downstream sector
The downstream sector touches consumers through products such as gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil, heating oil, fuel oils, lubricants, waxes, asphalt, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as well as hundreds of petrochemicals.
Mexico’s Downstream Sector
Mexico has six refineries located in the states of Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Guanajuato, Oaxaca and Hidalgo.

Operated by PEMEX, the one and only NOC in Mexico, these refineries process about 1.5 million of crude oil bpd.
In 2013, the Brazilian company Braskem joined the Mexican company Idesa, to create Braskem-Idesa, created to revive the Petrochemical Industry in Mexico.

Braskem-Idesa provided $4500 million dollars to construct and operate Etileno XXI, a greenfield petrochemical plant that is located in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
Etileno XXI is the largest project-finance transaction in the history of the petrochemical industry in the Americas, and Mexico’s first major private sector petrochemicals project in more than 20 years.

Etileno XXI created 9,000 jobs during the construction phase as well as 3,000 direct and indirect jobs when operations begin in October this year. It will help improve Mexico’s global competitiveness in the Petrochemical industry, specially plastic, automotive and fertilizer industries.

Finding Oil
Francisco Robledo Miriam Solís
Carlos Riebeling
Edgar Rascón
Pipes carry the liquids and gases from the wells to platforms, under the sea, across countries, and within refineries.
Process engineers.
Calculate the size of pipe required and the piping scheme between the process units.
Layout engineers.
Decide exactly where the process equipment is to be located.
Check whether any special materials are required and pipe stress engineers calculate the stresses in the pipes, specify the details of the pipe required and how it will be supported.
Piping designers.
Use Computer Aided Design (CAD) to visualize the three dimensions they work in.
Pipe Fitters and Welders.
They complete the assembly and construction of the pipeline.

Design and construction
The fabricator receives the material from the MTO and makes up as much as possible into pipe spools in the workshop. The pipe spools are transported to the work site and pipe fitters and welders complete the assembly and construction of the isometric. Welders have to be trained, tested, and certified for the particular welding techniques they can work with.
Antonio Solis
Alberto Fierro
An oil platform, offshore platform, or oil rig is a large structure with facilities to drill wells, to extract and process oil and natural gas, or to temporarily store product and offshore means that its within the sea, but we have two main different types:
Offshore platform

These platforms are anchored directly onto the seabed, supporting a deck with space for drilling rigs.

Parts of the platform
Onshore platform
An onshore platform means its build within the ground.

A pumpjack is the overground drive for a reciprocating piston pump in an oil well.

A pumpjack is also called:
oil horse
donkey pumper
nodding donkey
pumping unit
horsehead pump
rocking horse
beam pump
gasshopper pump
Big Texan
thirsty bird
jack pump
Why the gas and oil exploration is important?
An offshore well typically costs $30 million ($10-$100 million range).
The average US onshore well costs about $4 million.
Smaller companies may drill a shallow well for $100,000.
Oil and gas companies spend much time on analysis models of good exploration data and will only drill when those models which give a good indication of source rock and the best probability of finding oil and gas.
Where do we find hydrocarbons?
Hydrocarbons are found in sedimentary basins. There are huge areas throughout the world which can either be on land (onshore) or below the sea (offshore).
Crude oil is a hydrocarbons mixture and organic compounds which over the years was deposited on the seabed and preserved as fossils; this deposit suffered chemical and physical changes because of heat and pressure.
Who can work finding oil and gas?




Methods to find oil and gas
It measures the waves created by an explosion which travels trough the rocks in different speed. The waves travels faster in soft rock, if the speed decreases, it is possible find oil in the underground.
Seismic reflection
It studies the soil to detect porous rock where it might exist oil traps. Samples are collected and inspected by X-Ray, then it’s drilled in order to study the stratum.
Geological method
Measuring variations of gravity in different parts of the ground to determine the size of the rocks and holes where they can accommodate hydrocarbons.

This method studies the arrangement of each layer of soil and rock types that exist in the place, thanks to the study of magnetic fields created, which could result from a reservoir.

Gravimetric method
Magnetic method
It studies the structure of a wide area of soil with high precision. It plans land use and identifies hydrography to define without lacerating the floor, if the area is ideal for finding hydrocarbons.
Satellite method
This method consist on study the underground resistance by measuring natural electromagnetic fields. The strength varies depending on the material caught in the ground.
Magneto telluric method
This method measures the focused gases on the underground from the gases which come to the surface through layers of rocks or soil fractures.
Geochemical method
Finding Oil and Gas in Mexico
The first well on Mexico was discovered in 1904, it was called La Pez-1 in San Luis Potosí, it was found at a depth of 530 meters.
In Mexico to find hydrocarbons is performed a oil potential assessment, in which are identified, mapped and prioritize areas where exist greater chance of finding accumulations of hydrocarbons underground.

It requires:
Surface geology
Seismic 2D

In order to identify and propose prospects for drilling and find oil and gas.

Oil Refinery
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