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Transcript of Ancient Greece
In the 300s BC, Greece was conquered by Philip of Macedon. Many city-states still maintained their own government even if there was a king. Philip's son, Alexander the Great, ruled after him until he died in 323 BC. Macedonian kings ruled Greece until it was taken over by the Romans. After the Romans lost powere, the Normans took power and built castles and ruled as kings. And finally, in 1453 AD, the Turks took control and established laws similar to those of the Romans. Architecture The stylistic views of architecture in Ancient Greece were very important. The Greeks took much pride in the what their building were formed. There were generally three main prominent architectural buildings: temples, theaters, and stadiums. Temples Theaters Stadiums Temples such as that of Athena, Erechteion, and Parthenon were the architectural eye-candy of their time. These temples, as well as others, influenced the architecture through their endurance and proportional harmony for the last two thousand years. Theaters were the central place of formal gatherings. It served as a places for entertainment in the form of not only tragedies and comedies but also for poetry and musical events. Athletic events provided the Greeks with an opportunity to come together as one, but also still "show-off" their city-state. Athletic events were great spectacles and theses Stadiums served as a beginning for the treasured Olympic Games. Olympics Purpose Competition Though there was mostly likely many games prior, the first Olympic Games was recorded in 776 B.C. The games were originally dedicated the the 12 Olympian Gods and they were held on ancient plains of Olympia. The Olympic Games were a time of unity. Every four years participants from all over Greece would come to compete for the ultimate prize of the olive wreath. Doing well in the Olympics not only meant representing your city-state well, but also valuing the noble competition and the participants ability to combine the body, mind, and will power. The Games Some games of the Ancient Greek Olympics were: javelin throwing, discus, long jump, weightlifting, swimming, fencing, gymnastics; foot races such as: Stadion, Diaulos, Dolichos, and Hoplitodromos. They also competed in boxing type events such as Pygme/Pygmachia, Pale, and Pankration. And of course they competed at chariot racing. Way of Life Greek Mythology Great Minds Greek mythology was a way of life. Like a religion to many, these myths told the stories of their Gods and Goddesses. The myths told were an attempt to try to explain the world around them. Example The great minds of the many philosophers of Ancient Greece played a pivotal role in shaping the the western philosophical traditions. These philosophers broke away from the mythological way of thinking and created new theories for explaining the world. The philosophers of Ancient Greece truly had a "love for wisdom." Philosophers The story of Medusa is a very popular one. Medusa was a very beautiful girl. She was a priestess of Athena, the goddess of war. Medusa was so ravishing that Poseidon, the god of the sea, raped her. Medusa, thereafter, was forever cursed because she was no longer a virgin. Athena made her absolutely ugly, turned her hair into poisonous snakes, banished her, and,. whenever she looked someone in the eye, that person turned to stone. Language Influence Socrates: Plato: Aristotle: Aphrodite: goddess of love, beauty, and desire.
Athena: the goddess of wisdom, warfare, battle strategy, heroic endeavour, handicrafts and reason.
Poseidon: the god of the sea, rivers, floods, droughts, earthquakes, and the creator of horses.
Zeus: the king of the gods.
Hermes: god of travel, messengers, trade, thievery, cunning wiles, language, writing, diplomacy, athletics, and animal husbandry.
Hades: the king of the Underworld. Gods and Goddesses A critic of the Sophists, Socrates believed that for truth and justice absolute standards did exist. He also pushed Greeks to question themselves, as well as their moral characters. Sparta Sparta vs. Athens A student of Socrates, Plato wrote of the discussion he had with his teacher after Socrates had passed. His idea of a philosopher-king dominated philosophic thought for nearly 1,500 years. Athens The Spartans were a very aggressive group of people. They favored physical perfection and had a very strong army. Sparta sought power through their army, unlike the Athenians. The Spartans' government was an oligarchy. Sparta was not open to an education, they just pushed towards a military. Women had more right in Sparta than most parts of Greece. Sparta's economy was reliant on agriculture. Aristotle questioned human belief, thought, & knowledge, as well as the nature of the world. The work of Aristotle is the basis of today's scientific method. The Athens were a thoughtful people. They were huge in art and music. Athens sought power in land. They were trying to dominate as much land as they could. To do this, they recognized other priorities than a very strong military like the Spartans did. The Athens had a democratic government. Athens was big on education. Family ties in Athens were strong and women were dependent upon their husbands. Athens economy depended upon trade. Famous philosophers often created terms for common phrases. For example:
Hyle - Aristole's word for "prime matter"
Phronesis - generally used to describe practical knowledge
Eidon - Image. The images of the sensible world, the poor, inexact copies of the perfect eid‘. Ancient Greek philosophy was the begining of organized Western thought. The varying philosophers and their theories are what would eventually produce what we know today as math, science, political theory, pyschology, and more. Sparta and Athens were similar because they were both thinking countries. They both worshiped their gods and respected their people. They loved beauty, music, literature, drama, philosophy, politics, and art and some even loved battle and sports. Change Theater Arts and Entertainment The transformation from Ancient Greece to the Hellenistic Period marked Greece's change from being localized to being an open, exuberant culture. In the Hellenistic Period, everything took a Greek hue. The Greek language was established as the official language of the Hellenistic world. Also, both art and literature of the era were transformed. Instead of focusing on the "ideal," art focused on the real. Everything seemed to turn from"drab to fab" as the Greek world gained exuberance. The first theaters were invented in Greece, and they could hold up to 14,000 people. People from all over Greece would come to watch these plays. No more than three people were ever on the stage at one time and they wore masks to distinguish between the characters. These plays and operas were often featured around one of their gods. Pottery Many ancient Greeks practiced pottery. One of the most famous kinds of Greek pots are the ones painted with black people on them. Olympic Games In 776 BC, the Olympic Games were created in order to praise Zeus. Greece influence our studies of philosophy, which in turn influenced our way of thinking, our sciences, and our maths. Today we are still influenced w=y the Classical Greek architecture. We learn about the great mythological Greek gods and goddesses, as well as the basic rules of drama and literature that were set by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euirpides. We also took note of their impeccable Spartan warfare tactics and used it to improve our warfare. Battle of Marathon, 490 BC Battle of Thermopylae, 480 BC A battle against the Persian invasion that became stuff of legends. This battle cemented the Spartan name into the minds of their neighbors. The battle was fought under the guidance of the Spartan King Leonidas. It occurred at the same time as the naval battle at Artemisium. While the clash between a 7,000 strong Greek force and a 100,000-300,000 strong Persian force progresses, King Leonidas led a small force and block the only road the Persians could use to get in. A new road was found by the Persians, though and the Greeks were eventually defeated. Despite the loss, the heroic deeds of the Greeks allow them to be recognized as winners. Important Wars and Battles The Battle of Marathon was between King Darius' Persian army and the combined forces of Athens and Plataea. Darius was mad at Greece for helping Ionia when Persia was fighting them. Greece, though outnumbered, beat the lightly armed Persians. Battle of Salamis, 480 BC Battle of Chaeronea, 338 BC Fought in September 480 BC, the Battle of Salamis was, as historians agree, the most important battle in human history. It was a naval battle between the Greek city-states and Persia. The battle took place in the strait between Piraeus and Salamis Island, near Athens. Although heavily outnumbered, and having lost previous two battles, the Greeks came out on top as the Persians became disorganized. This battle ultimately caused the demise of Persia and influenced the growth and preservation of Athenian democracy and influenced Western civilization’s core ideas of freedom and individual rights. As the Greek empire declined, and Greece was under Macedonian rule of Alexander the Great. This was a direct result of the Battle of Chaeronea, fought in 338 BC between the Greek allied city-states and the forces of Philip II of Macedon. Despite Phillip's "peaceful" ruling, his idea that he as the all time ruler did not mesh well with patriotic Greeks. Trying to escape his rule, Athens attempted to join force with a city, but Phillip too son declared war on that city. The battle was at a stalemate for several months before Philip’s forces advanced into the region and attempted to take Thebes and Athens. The Greek forces were crushed by the large Athens army. The battle is commonly seen as one of the most important in the Ancient World because the Greek city-states were defeated, Athens’ power dwindled, and the country came under the rule of the Macedonians for centuries.