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Thach Lam

on 17 October 2014

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Transcript of Resilience

January 2013 - The state adopted a general rebuilding standard that will adapt to the changing of flood hazards and correspond them with federal flood insurance rates.
New Jersey Office of Emergency Management's Disaster Recovery Bureau provided technical assistance to FEMA's program "406 mitigation" design opportunities to rebuild resiliently.
Post Sandy Planning Assistance Grant Program providing communities grants for development in recovery plans and community design standards for flood hazards
New Jersey Office of Emergency Management under FEMA's Hazard Mitigation, provides counties with grants to develop a multi-jurisdictional hazard mitigation plan
New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and many others are collaborating with US Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory to study the state's energy vulnerabilities and encourages the use of innovative technology.
a system's ability to mitigate and withstand disturbances and to bounce back afterwards, while continuing to function
Foundation of Resilience
Social Movement started in the 1960s into the 70s as scientists gathered in University of British Columbia lead by Crawford S. (Buzz) Holling.
Promoting an emergent approach to science that embodied the search for novel and innovative results by examining underlying dynamics.
Pros of Resiliency
Countries are better prepared for natural disasters, unpredictable weather patterns, and the long term results of climate change.
Reduce exposure to climate change impacts.
Decrease vulnerability of human and natural systems.
Increase in urbanization and foundation development.
Increase women involvement in decision-making.
Productive social involvement policies give societies an advantage and are better prepared for taking on weak groups and economies.
Emerging technologies not only help rebuild and restore the environment, but in addition, the government can use it to strengthen weak social issues before and after an emergency.
"Resilience thinking"
Change is inevitable
What does society need to know to be able to adapt?
Humans are inseparable from nature; we live within socio-ecological systems
Failures of Sustainability
The pursuit of sustainable goals has not resulted in effective mitigation of climate change.
-greenhouse gas emissions and consumption patterns have continued to increase

The concept of sustainability has failed to change the human behaviors that caused climate change.

Any attempt to resist change or control it
is doomed to failure
Resilience thinking
The foundation of resilience thinking came from the interplay of theory and practice that took three complementary, but divergent forms:
Resilience Science
Adaptive Management
Ecological Policy Design
Resilience Should Replace Sustainability
Sustainability focuses on achieving equilibrium, while resilience acknowledges that nonlinear change will occur.

Resilience will reorient efforts toward coping with change instead of trying to maintain the current states of being.
-example: increased development of climate adaptation strategies
"The Environment Strategy recognizes that while there has been notable progress in reducing global poverty, there has been significantly less progress in managing the environment sustainably."
Combining them could result in compromising on the fundamental ideas of each theory since they tend to contradict each other.
- Sustainability focuses on efficiency by reducing energy and material use
- This method of increasing efficiency would reduce resilience
Problems with Combining Resilience and Sustainability
Concepts of Resilience
Social Capital
Tight Feedback

Envision the future
Results of change are specified in advance
Focuses on transitions
Concerned with interventions that lead to sustainability
Aims to put the world back in balance
Differences in the Theories

Change is normal
Result of change is open ended
Focus on adaptation
Concerned with maintaining the system
Aims to manage in an unbalanced world

The World's Bank Group's Environment Strategy 2012-2022 lays out a determined plan of action to promote resilient paths for developing countries by:
helping countries adapt to climate change through coastal zone management and climate-efficient agriculture
promote disaster risk management through expansion of climate risk insurance for recovery
reduce reliance of oil imports
build sound infrastructure
restore protective coastal ecosystems

Opposing Viewpoints
Many researchers feel that Resilience should replace Sustainability, while others think that the two theories can work together.
Resilience Instead of Sustainability
"It is time to move past the concept of sustainability"

Concept of resilience holds promise as a new way of addressing the challenges ahead.
Resilience with Sustainability
Many researchers are attempting to combine the concepts of sustainability and resilience.

Linking Resilience and Sustainability will help us better plan for desired future systems.
-Example: Building infrastructure that will avoid devastation from future storms, such as Hurricane Sandy
Adaptive Cycle
Adaptive Cycles
longest phase
networks formed
increased stability
growth slows
increased efficiency
decreased resilience
early phase
rapid growth
no networks
highest resilience
sudden change or disaster from outside the system
resources "released"
cycle starts new
biophysical and social aspects that interact
dynamic complex systems
affected by outside factors
not predictable
can follow an adaptive cycle

Socio-ecological systems
fore loop
back loop
When a system becomes more efficient and less resilient
A disturbance will "flip" system
Begin new cycle
back loop
fore loop
Case Study
New Jersey After Sandy
Cons of Resiliency
Biodiversity/Plant diversity
Climate change
Dumping of waste in sea
In a Resilient World...
It would empower all of its people with access to healthcare, education and opportunity.
It distributes power more freely to allow more decision making by its people.
It would share costs and benefits equally.
We would have the capacity to re-establish function and avoid long term disruptions and attain backup when a vital part of a system fails.
Case Study
Thach Lam, Haley Peluso, Alexandria Smith, Grace Weiss
Full transcript