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Francisco 1.0 Introduction
This final project is for learning about up and down counter using two bit. It also give student to learn about the seven segment used. The projects are test student how to read and understand the circuit. It also gives student how to connect the seven segments to the circuit. Besides that, student learn how to soldering the component.
The project give student experiences build up and down counter using seven segments. The project is about the numbering up and down by using seven segments. The project also give a changes to student to design the project by them self.
Seven segments up and down counter is the connection for binary code using switch. The seven segment up and down counter also automatically move went the press the switch, either from bigger digit to smaller digit or form smaller digit to bigger digit until the limited.
The final projects also give student how to use a Proteus and workbench and build the circuit by using the programmer. The Proteus and workbench also tested the circuit will be function or not. 2.0 Objective
•Learn how to soldering the component to board.
•Learn how to read the circuit.
•Learn how the circuit operation.
•Learn how to design the final project.
•Learn how to measure the component.
•Learn how to use the Proteus.
•Learn how to use the workbench. 3.0 Operation of the circuits :
This project is an extension of Digital Pulse Counter - Single Digit. There are two 7 segment displays and IC 4026 used here to count up to 99. The 5th pin of 4026 gives out a pulse when it moves from 9 to 0. The pulse from the one's place fed to the ten's place 4026 to move to the next digit as one's place digit moves to 0 from 9. Note the connection from pin 5 of second IC to pin 1 of first IC. Once you have done the single digit project and gets it working doing this project is a piece of cake. 6.0 Function of component :
6.1 Seven-segment cathode.
A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information. 6.1.2 Implementations
Seven-segment displays may use a liquid crystal display (LCD), a light-emitting diode (LED) for each segment, or other light-generating or controlling techniques such as cold cathode gas discharge, vacuum fluorescent, incandescent filaments, and others. For gasoline price totems and other large signs, vane displays made up of electromagnetically flipped light-reflecting segments (or "vanes") are still commonly used. An alternative to the 7-segment display in the 1950s through the 1970s was the cold-cathode, neon-lamp-like nixie tube. Starting in 1970, RCA sold a display device known as the Numitron that used incandescent filaments arranged into a seven-segment display. 6.1.3 Displaying letters :
Hexadecimal digits can be displayed on seven-segment displays. A particular combination of uppercase and lowercase letters are used for A–F; this is done to obtain a unique, unambiguous shape for each letter (otherwise, a capital D would look identical to an 0 and a capital B would look identical to an 8). Also the digit 6 must be displayed with the top bar lit to avoid ambiguity with the letter b) IC 4026
The integrated circuit (IC) industry is converting to lead (PB)-free termination finishes for lead frame-based packages. IC component users need to know the maximum length of time that components can be stored prior to being soldered. This study predicts shelf life of the primary PB-free finishes being proposed by the industry. Components were exposed to a controlled environment, with known aging acceleration factors. The PB-free components were exposed to a Battelle Class 2 environment both in and outside of their normal packing materials. Results show that the PB-free-finished ICs stored in tubes, trays, or tape-and-reel packing material pass solder ability testing after 96-h exposure to the Class 2 environment. This exposure correlates to eight years in an uncontrolled indoor environment, such as a warehouse. IC 555 :
The 555 IC is one of the simplest and most rugged IC's on the market. It has been used in thousands of applications and is extremely popular. This discussion will cover its numerous modes of operation and present a number of circuits for these applications. However I must point out one thing.
The 555 is a very noisy chip and has a very nasty internal feature called "crow-bar effect" that can put a lot of noise on the power rails of a circuit. Its operation as an oscillator can be done by other chips and we have provided some alternatives in the notes. Resistor
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment.
The value of a resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter, which may be one function of a multimeter. Capacitor
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric Conclusion
This project actually give student to learn how read the circuit , how to soldering , how to connect the component , and learn about the seven segment up and down counter using two bit. Besides that, student also learns about the operation of up and down counter. Student also, can know how to use seven segments in a circuit. It also can give us to build or create a model of seven segments up and down counter. Actually the project is mini but it can help student how the circuit function. The seven segment has many design and it can be many bit more that one. This project also help student to study up and down counter by theory and practical. The project gives student advantages to read and build the circuit. Then build a model of the project.