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AED First Aid Training

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Ash Botes

on 7 March 2017

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Transcript of AED First Aid Training

Welcome to
First Aid Training

The chain of survival
All animal life needs a constant supply of oxygen to survive.

To maintain the oxygen supply to the body, a person must breath effectively and their heart must be 'pumping' .
If either of these functions stop, the brain and heart will quickly deteriorate. If a casualty suffers a cardiac arrest, there is a sequence of events that must happen in order for them to have a chance of survival. This is known as the...
The chain of survival
What types of AEDs are there and what does a Defibrillator do
The use of an AED can dramatically increase the chances of survival if a casualty's heart stops beating, but it must be used promptly - for every one minute delay in delivering the shock, the chance of survival reduces by up to 10%
An Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is a safe, reliable, computerised device that can analyse heart rhythms and enable a non-medically qualified rescuer (first aider) to safely deliver the life saving shock.
It is worth pointing out that a heart attack does not always cause a cardiac arrest.

The majority of people who suffer a heart attack stay conscious and survive.
Most common cause for a heart to stop is a "heart attack". If the heart attack (or other causes) results in a cardiac arrest, it is usually because it has interrupted the heart's electrical impulses.

When this happens the heart quivers chaotically instead of beating in a co-ordinated rhythm called "Ventricular Fibrillation" (VF).

Definitive treatment of Ventricular Fibrillation is to deliver a controlled electrical shock though the heart, to STOP the "quivering" and enable it to beat normally again. This is called 'defibrillation'.
Steps to be taken
Early recognition

999 / 112
Brain cells start to die within 3 to 4 minutes of a cardiac arrest, so it's very important that cardiac arrest is recognised early.

Help must be summoned immediately.

If you suspect cardiac arrest then call for help
Early CPR

Compressions are needed to pump blood around the body and rescue breaths are needed to put more oxygen in.

Early CPR before the ambulance arrives has been proven to double or triple the chances of survival.
If the heart has been kept oxygenated, it's easier to re-start it
Early Defibrillation

Remember - for every one minute longer it takes to defibrillate a casualty after cardiac arrest, the chance of survival reduces by as much as 10%
Stay Calm!
Stay Calm!!
Stay Calm!
Early Advanced Care

Even if the heart has been re-started, the problem that caused the cardiac arrest may still be present, so the heart is in grave danger of stopping again.

Early advanced care from the ambulance service is essential to reduce the effects

D - Danger
R - Response
S - Shout for help
A - Check Airway
B - Check Breathing
C - CPR/Circulation
Signs / Symptoms

- Sudden, can occur at rest
- 'Vice-like' squashing pain, often described as 'dull', 'tightness' or 'pressure' on the chest. Can be mistaken for indigestion.
Location of Pain
- Central chest area. Can radiate into either arm (more commonly the left), the neck, jaw, back or shoulders.
Duration - Usually lasts longer than 30 min.
Skin - Pale, grey color. May sweat profusely.
Other Signs and Symptoms
- Shortness of breath, dizziness, nausea, vomiting. Sense of 'impending doom'.
Factors Giving Relief
- Medication may give partial or no relief.
Signs / Symptoms

- Sudden, usually during exertion, stress or extreme weather.
- 'Vice-like squashing pain, often described as 'dull', 'tightness' or 'pressure' on the chest. Can be mistaken for indigestion.
Location of Pain
- Central chest area. Can radiate into either arm (more commonly the left), the neck, jaw, back or shoulders.
- Usualy lasts 3 to 8 min rarely longer.
Skin - Pale, may be sweaty.
Other Signs / Symptom
s - Shortness of breath, weakness, anxiety.
Factors Given Relief
- Resting, reducing stress, taking medication.

This is a narrowing of the artery wall caused by cholesterol. During exercise or excitement, the heart requires more oxygen, but the narrowed caronary artery cannot increase the blood supply to meet this demand.
Heart Attack

This is a complete blockage of the artery caused by a blood clot. This results in the death of an area of the heart muscle. Unlike angina, the death of the heart muscle from heart attack is permanent and will not be relieved by rest.


Many think a defibrillation shock is a type of 'jump start', trying to make the heart re-start. This is not the case:
The shock is designed to make the heart's electrical cells re-charge all at the same time, which hopefully stops the fibrillation and brings the heart to a standstill.
Once the fibrillation is stopped, if the casualty is very lucky, the heart's pacemaker will still be in working order and be able to start sending its impulses normally again.

The longer the heart has been fibrillating, the less likely it is to start
Resuscitation with an AED

D- Danger
Make sure that the casualty, any bystanders and you are safe.
Consider the safety implications of using an AED in this situation

R - Response
Tap the shoulders and ask loudly 'Are you alright, can you open your eyes?'

If there is no response:
Shout for help immediately.
If possible, ask one helper to call 999/112 and another to get the AED, but do not leave the casualty yourself just yet.

A - Airway
Carefully open the airway by using 'head tilt' and 'chin lift'.

B - Breathing
Keeping the airway open, look, listen and feel to see if the breathing is normal. Take no more than 10 sec. to do this.
If the casualty is breathing normally, place them in the recovery position.

If the casualty is not breathing normally:
If you are on your own, call 999/112 for emergency help and get the AED - you may need to leave the casualty to do this.

If you have help - start CPR immediately whilst your helper(s) get the AED and call 999/112 for emergency help. Continue CPR until the AED arrives.

Electrical Shock

Tests have show that if the casualty's chest is dry and the pads are stuck to the chest correctly, the risk of electrical shock is very low, because the electricity only wants to travel from one pad to the other, not 'earth' like mains electricity.

To be extra safe however, briefly check that nobody is touching the casualty before delivering a shock.

DO NOT delay defibrillation because the casualty is on a wet or metal surface-provided the chest is dry it is safe to deliver the shock

Take care not to place the pads over jewelry such as a necklace.
This would conduct the electricity and burn the casualty.
There is no need to remove pierced jewellery, but do not place the pads over it.
Medication Patches

Some patients wear a patch to deliver medication (such as a nicotine patch). Some heart patients wear a 'glyceryl tri-nitrate' (GTN) patch.

This type of patch can explode if electricity is passed though it, so remove any visible medication patches as a precaution before delivering the shock.
Implanted devices

Certain heart patients may have a pacemaker or defibrillator implanted.

You can often see or feel them under the skin when the chest is exposed and there may be a scar.

They are usually implanted just below the left collar bone, whis not in the way of the AED pads, but if a device has been implanted elsewhere, try to avoid placing the pads directly over it.
Highly flammable atmosphere

There is a danger of the AED creating a spark when the shock is delivered, so it should not be used in a highly flammable atmosphere (in the presence of petrol fumes for example).
Inappropriate Shock

AEDs are proven to analyse heart rhythms extremely accurately, however the casualty needs to be motionless whilst the AED does this.
Do not use an AED on a casualty who is fitting (violent jerking movements) and ensure vehicle engines or vibrating machinery are switched off whenever possible.
Current UK survival rates:
6% Survive
94% Die
AED Study:
38% Survive
62% Die
Casualty in VF and shock delivered within 3 min:
74% Survive
26% Die
When the AED arrives:

If you have a helper, ask to continue CPR whilst you get the AED ready.

NOTE: If the helper is untrained ask them to give chest compressions only.

Switch on the AED immediately and follow the voice prompts:

Attach the leads to the AED if necessary and attach the pads to the casualties bare chest (do this whilst your helper performs CPR if possible)

You may need to towel dry or shave the chest so the pads stick properly. Only shave excessive hair and don't delay defibrillation if a razor is not immediately availavle.

Peel the backing from one pad at a time and place firmly in position, following the instructions on the pads.

Place one pad below the victim's right collar bone.

Place the other pad on the victim's left side, over the lower ribs

DO NOT remove the pads of you have placed them wrong way arround - the AED will still work.

Whilst the AED analyses the rhythm - stop CPR and ensure that no one touches the casualty.
If a shock is advised:

Ensure that nobody touches the casualty (check from top to toe and shout "stand clear")
Push the shock button as directed (fully automatic AED's will deliver the shock automatically)
Continue as directed by the voice/visual prompts.
Minimise as far as possible, interruptions in chest compressions.
If a shock is NOT advised
Immediately resume CPR using a ratio of 30 chest compressions to 2 rescue breaths.
Continue as directed by the voice/visual prompts.
When the ambulance arrives:

The ambulance crew will need some important information from you when they arrive:

Give a quick history of the events leading up to the collapse.
Tell them whether or not the AED advised a shock, and if so how many shocks it has delivered.

Refresh your knowledge and skills in CPR
Provide candidates the knowledge and skills in the use of an AED
Provide you with the confidence when attending an emergency
Provide you with an enjoyable learning experience

You will have refreshed your knowledge and practical skills in CPR
You will have the understanding of the underpinning principles in the use of an AED
You will have gained the practical skills and
You will have gained confidence in the use of an AED
Hopefully you will have had an enjoyable learning experience
The End

Thank you for participating in today's training.
Please do not forget to complete out evaluation form and collect your certificates.
Full transcript