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Scientific Management

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Amiee Bradley

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of Scientific Management

Scientific Management
Amiee Bradley
Katie Britton-Powell
Andy Brimmell
Hassan Abdullah

Introduction
'The Principles of Scientific Management' (published in 1911):

3) Staff must be monitored with their work performance to ensure that they are working to their full capacity. To do this instructions must be provided and must be clear and directive – this means that their focus can be directly on the task.

4)To ensure that output is maximised and tasks are performed efficiently, work must be allocated between the workers and managers – there is almost an equal division of work (Naylor, 2004). If the work is set out for workers they have the opportunity to plan the work, therefore boosting the amount of staff working towards their maximum capacity.
(1) Science, Not Rule of Thumb:
This principle says that we should not get stuck in a set routine with the old techniques of doing work; rather we should always be experimenting so new techniques can be developed to essentially make the work much simpler, easier and quicker. Therefore, trying new ideas and changes to ‘routines’ should be made on a regular basis.

(2) Harmony, Not Discord:
This principle states that atmosphere should be created in the organisation that labour and management consider each other necessary to work together as a team to maximise the output. Taylor referred to this occurrence as a ‘Mental Revolution’. Taylor strongly believed that the occurrence of a mental revolution would end all conflicts between both the workers and the management party and would be beneficial to both of them.


Principles of Scientific Management
Principles of Scientific Management
Experiment
Standardisation
Selection and training
Payment by results
Co-operation
Critiques
Historical context:
Manager had very little contact with workers
Left on their own to make the product
Only motivation was continued employment
No standardisation (Eyre, 2008)
Weaknesses from employees standpoint
Dehumanizing workers due to the overly specialized roles of workers
Centralized decision making. Managers 'Think' Workers 'Do'.
Lead to weaker trade unions and unemployment
Weaknesses from employers standpoint
Standardization Expensive and time consuming to implement
Cant be implemented to all organizations
Critiques
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1855-1915):
Worked in steel works were he performed experiments using stopwatch
Became expert in efficiency (Naylor, 2004)
He calculated the most efficient way for workers to complete a certain task (Eyre, 2008)
This was very unpopular amongst workers due to less freedom (ABC News, 1999)
Introduction
Outlines the importance of science within management rather than autocratic management. (Taylor, 1911)
Highlighted the importance of cooperation between managers and workers. (Taylor, 1911)
Taylor’s theories changed the way labour and manual work was organised in the 20th century. (Naylor, 2004)
Ford used Taylor's ideas to develop world's first mass production line. (PBS America, 2008)
4 principles of Sci Mgnt
Experimentation
Standardisation
One of the key idea’s behind the theory is experiments to find the best or most favorable method to improve business performance.
Taylor thought that by analysing work, the "One Best Way" to do it would be found , it must then be tested to see if it reaches its maximum prosperity.

In one of Fredrick Taylor’s famous experiments, he tested conditions to make sure that workers had the correct work tools to be most efficient in each job they carry out.

Taylor gave the men shovels with smaller and smaller blades each day until the amount shovelled in a day began to fall. This meant that he was then able to determine the most efficient size of the tool for each task. (“Scientific Management”)
Selection and training
Payment by results
Cooperation
Taylor’s principles cannot be put into place without co-operation, therefore it is vital for managers and workers to be able to co-operate successfully for them to be able to work as a team towards the end result.

Individualism should not be evident, workers must vitally be able to co-operate with one another to focus on tasks.

Perrow summaries that managers and workers should co-operate to divide any surplus between higher wages and profits through constructive discussion. (Naylor, 2004)
Manager publishes instructions for the workers and ensures they have the correct equipment to perform the job in the most efficient way possible. (Naylor, 2004)

Eg. Taylor found the most efficient motion for shovelling.

He also designed the most ergonomic shovel for each material so the workers would have one shovel for each material. (Sandrone, 2014)
Strengths from employees standpoint
Piecework lead to higher pay and better working conditions
Provided opportunity for training
Strengths from employers standpoint
Introduced systematic selection
It cut out the wastage of time and resources
Piecework helped to motivate staff and eliminate 'soldiering'
Developed co-operation between managers and workers. Standardization also improved the quality of output
'
Piece work
' is any type of employment in which a worker is paid a fixed piece rate for each unit produced or action performed regardless of time.

Workers were motivated by pay, so piecework is essential for scientific management schemes. Traditionally, piece work rates were discussed between supervisor and worker but instead Taylor experimented with different piecework plans.

For example, when the best method was found, they would match the rate to the average worker. Output higher than the average would be awarded with rewards such as an increase in pay. E.g. the standard rate might have been 10p per 20 units, but after that increasing to 12p per unit. (Naylor, 2002)

Conclusion
One of the first to train staff for each specific role
Success of any business depends on the workers. Taylorism Introduced a scientific procedure to select the right workers.
Identifies unproductive or unmotivated workers
References
ABC News, 1999. Taylorism on ABC World Report. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 7 10 2014].

Brooks, I., 2003. Organisational Behaviour. In: 2nd, ed. Individuals, Groups and Organistion. Northampton: Prentice Hall, pp. 124-128.

Eyre, E., 2008. Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management. [Online]
Available at: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_Taylor.htm
[Accessed 7 10 2014].

Naylor, J., 2004. Management. 2nd ed. Liverpool: Prentice Hall.
PBS America, 2008. Ford and Taylor Scientific Management. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 7 10 2014].

Sandrone, V., 2014. F. W. Taylor & Scientific Management. [Online]
Available at: http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/taylor.asp
[Accessed 8 10 2014].

Taylor, F. W., 1911. The Principles of Management. Philadelphia: Digireads.com.

“Scientific Management”; http://www.accel-team.com/scientific/index.html; Accel Team.com; http://www.accel-team.com/; 2000; (5 Dec 00); http://www.accel-team.com/scientific/scientific_02.html.
One right way to perform a task failed to recognize the differences in how individuals work
Non-wage related motivational tools were very limited.
F W Taylor published 'The Principles of Scientific Management' in 1911
After experimenting, techniques of improved efficiency were devised
These theories were revolutionary, benefited both the employer and the employee.
Better pay, eliminated unnecessary wastage of resources
However, loss of freedom for employee lead to weaker trade unions.
Standardisation can be time consuming and expensive.
Thank you for watching
Advantages and Limitations of scientific management. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2014, from Refrence notes: http://notes.tyrocity.com/advantages-and-limitations-of-scientific-management/
Chand, S. (n.d.). Criticism of Scientific Management: by Workers, Employers and Psychologists. Retrieved October 8, 2014, from Your Article Library: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/scientific-management/criticism-of-scientific-management-by-workers-employers-and-psychologists/25833/

Criticism of Scientific Management. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2014, from Management Study Guide: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/criticism_scientificmanagement.htm

Criticism of Taylor's Scientific Management - Limitations. (2014, October 6). Retrieved from http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/06/criticism-of-taylor-scientific.html

Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management. (n.d.). Retrieved October 6, 2014, from Mind Tools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_Taylor.htm

Frederick W. Taylor. (n.d.). Retrieved October 6, 2014, from Teach Space: http://www.teachspace.org/personal/research/management/taylor.html

Kai-Ping Huang, J. T.-J. (2013, April). KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: A PERSPECTIVE OF KNOWLEDGE SPIRAL. International journal of organizational innovation, 5, 78-86.

Taylor, F. W. (1967). Principles of scientific management . W.W. Norton.

What are the Advantages of Scientific Management in Business? (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2014, from http://dailyojo.com/articles/what-are-the-advantages-of-scientific-management-in-business.html

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