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Transcript of Punctuation
They are used to separate phrases, or short clauses, indicating to the reader to pause, or take a breath
commas are used to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series
Please pass me the green beans, potatoes, and bread.
I will bake apple pie, chocolate cake, and cheesecake for the bake sale.
commas are used after an introductory dependent clause.
I went scuba diving last week, but I am not eager to go again.
Commas are used to set off introductory words.
Hopefully, we will get there on time.
...or after an infinitive phrase.
Hoping to win, he spent all his money on the same tickets.
With a larger fish in mind, he spent more time on the lake.
They are used between two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction
(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
My cat was restless, so I played with him.
We were hungry, so we stopped to eat.
commas set off nonessential phrases or clauses.
Her apple pie is, absolutely, the best I have ever ate.
Commas set off an appositive (a word or phrase that renames a noun)
Shamika Johnson,the professor, is moving to Maryland.
END OF SENTENCE PUNCTUATION
end of sentence punctuation is used to let a reader know when a thought is finished
after a statement or a declarative sentence use a period
My cat Bob, is a bush dweller.
Maggie prefers a tree.
An interrogative sentence or a direct question is followed by a question mark
Would u like fries with that?
An exclamatory sentence is followed by an exclamation point
That fireworks display was spectacular!
remember to use these sparingly, they can unnecessarily exaggerate sentences.
SEMICOLONS ARE USED TO SEPARATE RELATED CLAUSES OR PHRASES
They join two independent clauses if there is no coordinating conjunction
(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
I do not like to sew; I made fleece blankets for birthday presents.
they are used before a conjunctive adverb
(however, therefor, meanwhile, accordingly)
A wise person thinks before acting; however, a foolish person does not.
He does not like onions; therefor, I do not add them when cooking.
semicolons help avoid confusion in lists where there are already commas
We traveled to London, England; Paris, France; Berlin, Germany; and Sofia, Bulgaria.
they are used to call attention to information that comes after an independent clause
they come after an independent clause but before the word, phrase, sentence, quotation, or list it is introducing
My bounty from the garden includes vegetables: green beans. (word)
My bounty from the garden includes vegetables and flowers: green beans and sunflowers. (phrase)
My bounty from the garden includes vegetables that must be harvested: then cleaned and preserved. (clause)
My bounty from the garden includes the following: tomatoes, green beans, banana peppers and spinach. (list)
use a colon between the title and subtitle of a book
Punctuation Made Easy: A Comprehensive Handbook
NEVER place a colon directly after a verb or preposition!
My friends are: Elizabeth, Tyler, and
I will go to: Paris, London, and Rome.-
THESE ARE USED TO FORM VARIOUS COMPOUND WORDS
any numbers between twenty-one and ninety-nine
Use hyphens in a compound adjective only when it comes before the word it modifies.
a well-liked author
an author who is well liked
a world-renowned composer
a composer that is world renowned
use a hyphen with all prefixes before proper nouns and proper adjectives
or with the suffix -elect
they are used to indicate spelling letter by letter
The word book is spelled b-o-o-k.
used to emphasize a point, it will often separate words in the middle of a sentence from the rest of the sentence
Dashes may be used to set off comments if they contain internal commas
This spring - with the urging of my mom, friend, and co-worker - I enrolled in college.
the words before and after can be their own sentence
it can be used to indicate an abrupt break or change in thought
Let's purchase them - well first, let me make sure I have enough money!
"Why u little -" the man shouted at the culprit
show where letters have been omitted
PLURALS OF ABBREVIATIONS
all A's and B's
earned two M.B.A.'s
these show the exact words of a person
"We will have a test on Thursday," replied Ms. Johnson
DO NOT USE THESE WHEN USING YOUR OWN WORDS TO EXPRESS THE AUTHORS IDEAS OR WHEN PHARAPHRASING
quotation marks set off the titles of magazine articles, poems, reports and chapters within a book
"And Still I Rise" is an excellent poem by Maya Angelou
PLACE PERIODS AND COMMAS INSIDE QUOTATION MARKS
place question mark or exclamation point inside the quotation only if they punctuate the quotation
"Are we there yet?" the kids cried.
place colons and semicolons outside quotation marks
question marks or exclamation points go outside the quotes if they punctuate the entire sentence
Why did the kids cry, "Are we there yet"?