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Teaching Expository Text Structure
Transcript of Teaching Expository Text Structure
Expository Text: Creating Strategic Readers
of Nonfiction Text Why? Readers who are unaware of the text structures are at a disadvantage because they do not approach reading with any type of reading plan (Meyer, Brandt, & Bluth, 1980). Students' reading comprehension skills improve when they acquire knowledge of texts' structural development (Akhondi et al). Carrell (1985) argued that instruction on text structure ... has a positive effect on ... students' recall protocols. It matters! How? 1. Introduce one organizational pattern at a time... Teach signal words & phrases Provide graphic organizers to fit 2. Give opportunities to analyze text
that displays this structure... Have students listen
for signal words Have students use graphic organizers to summarize 3. Have students write using these structures... Begin with whole-group writing Move on to small-group, partnered, & independent writing Have students use graphic organizers to plan their writing Have students draft using signal words Thompkins (1998) Nuts and Bolts... Order of Instruction... Description
Problem/Solution Work on one text structure at a time... 3 or 4 sessions per structure Find several short passages (6 to 8 lines) for the text structure you are going to teach... Signal Words & Phrases
to Teach: DESCRIPTION: for example, characteristics, for instance, such as, is like, including, to illustrate SEQUENCE: first, second, third, later, next, before, then, finally, after, when, later, since, now, previously COMPARE/CONTRAST: however, nevertheless, on the other hand, but, similarly, although, also, in contrast, different, alike, same as, either/or, in the same way, just like, just as, likewise, in comparison, whereas, yet CAUSE/EFFECT: if-then, reasons why, as a result, therefore, because, consequently, since, so that, for, hence, due to, thus, this led to PROBLEM/SOLUTION: problem is, dilemma is, if-then, because, so that, question/answer, puzzle is solved DESCRIPTION
Bats by G. Gibbons
Amazing Snakes by R. Parsons
Ant Cities by A. Dorros SEQUENCE:
My Puppy Is Born by J. Cole
How Kittens Grow by M. Selsam
The Buck Stops Here by A. Provensen COMPARE/CONTRAST:
Fire, Fire by G. Gibbons
Gator or Croc by A. Fowler
Outside & Inside You by S. Markle CAUSE/EFFECT:
What Makes Day & Night? by F. Bramley
What Happens to a Hamburger? by P. Showers
How Do Apples Grow? by G. Maestro PROBLEM/SOLUTION:
A River Ran Wild by L. Cherry
Cars & How They Go by J. Cole
If You Traveled on the Underground Railroad by E. Levine Explain the pattern
& when writers use it Model ways to determine the pattern when signal words are not used Read aloud a trade book
that illustrates the pattern Have students work in pairs to locate examples Texts... If today's students are to survive in the Information Age, they must develop greater familiarity with and understanding of expository text (Moss, 2004).