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Globalization WHAP


Jocelyn Harty

on 1 April 2017

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Transcript of Globalization WHAP

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
: Made after WWII in '47. Eased tariffs (taxes placed on foreign imports) which promoted more international trade. By 90s, tariffs were below 5%.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
: Took over GATT in '95. WTO's rules govern over 90% all global trade. In hot water because of it's policy to favor trade over moral issues.
Could be sanctioned for refusing to buy clothing from sweatshops.
India: 90s opened economy. Now a software and info tech powerhouse. Multinat corps like Microsoft and Google invest in the economy. Wealth --> HUGE middle class, but still have TON of poverty that the gov't hasn't really addressed.
Brazil: Agribusiness and steel industries brought wealth, but also still have huge urban poor populations.
Russia: Wealth from oil. If oil prices high, economy high. When oil prices dropped in early 2000s, economy declined (# homeless and unemployed skyrocketed).
Rise of (South)East Asian Economic Powers
India, Brazil, and Russia
International Trade Organizations
Global Pop Culture
Global brands
: Nike, Apple, even celebrities like LeBron James are known around the world.
After 2000s now having more global influence: anime from Japan, Bollywood from India (triple Lagaan!!).
Olympics and World Cup soccer a big deal again!
: US dominates a lot of global trade with our multinational corporations, and with that comes the predominance of the english language. Seeing some backlash against that worldwide- people feel it dilutes their unique cultural identity.
Globalized religions
: New Age religions, forms of Buddhism, shamanism, Sufism and others are revived and repackaged for a largely western audience.
Hare Krishna gained popularity in the West after George Harrison (of the Beatles) released a song with a Hare Krishna chant.
Falun Gong, a syncretic movment of Buddhist and Daoist traditions became popular in China. Buuuut the Communist gov't shut it down... human rights abuse.
End of
: 1948-1994 system of oppression of black South Africans (85% of population).
Pass laws
: kept black South Africans from moving freely, banned from living in certain areas, had to have passes to enter white areas, mixed marriages prohibited.
Nelson Mandela
: 1964 led the ANC and was imprisoned for life. ANC goals = end white domination and create a multiracial South Africa. Global cry for his release from prison. Elected president in '94, set up Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to restore trust in a multiracial S. Africa.
Protests for Freedom
: Economic reforms from Xiaoping did not lead to democratic reforms. CCP controlled education and all non-state organizations. NGOs weren't allowed in b/c they didn't obey CCP.
If it's a threat to the CCP, it won't be allowed.
Tiananmen Square
: Thousands of students, professors, and urban workers stages a massive prodemocracy protest. Demanded to speak with leaders over freedom of the press and other democratic reforms. CCP refused, --> 400 cities organizing sit-ins and other peaceful protests. CCP declared martial law, moved tanks into Tiananmen Square. CCP says no one died, but Amnesty International and Internation Red Cross estimate that 400 died.
Minority Rights
: 55 ethnic minorities. Tibet continues to protest for its independence, the Uighers in the NW complain of religious and political discrimination, and Mongolia is complaining of Han Chinese moving in and disrupting pastoral ways.
Environmental Issues
: Due to RAPID industrialization have MAJOR air and water pollution. When CCP built the 3 Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River it displaced 1.3 MILLION people. Major cities like Beijing have used up all their water and have to ship it in. Need more dams, which would lead to more displacement.
New World Order
(not Illuminati): after fall of USSR, Pres. Papa Bush wanted the US to take lead in creating a unified and secure world. US would bring RU into market economy. Also, US used this to lead coalition of forces against Iraq (Saddam Hussein had invaded Kuwait who we liked) in '91.
Lot of people don't like US. Don't like Americanization of the world. We see this in Ayatollah Khomeini's revolution in Iran.
Growth or Terrorism
: We see this with al-Qaeda, who advocate a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam. ---> September 11th attacks. Now we see terrorist attacks on a global scale (Paris, Belgium). Not just in the Middle East. Basque separatists in Spain committed acts of violence as well as Kashmiri separatists.
Responses to Terrorism
: US went to war in Afghanistan looking for Bin Laden and Iraq looking for WMDs.
Genocide and
Human Rights
: After WWII had many new nations in E. Euro who quickly were placed under Soviet control. After the collapse of the USSR, the nations in E. Euro (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Yugoslavia) all defined citizenship in terms of ethnic background and religion.
led ethnic cleansing against Muslims in Bosnia and Kosovo. Many Bosniaks, Kosovars and Croats fought back. More than 300,000 killed.
: Belgian colonizers treated minority Tutsis better than majority Hutus. When Rwanda won independence in '62, Hutu majority won control of the gov't and persecuted the Hutus who fled the country and formed a rebel army. In '93 start to work towards a coalition gov't but the Hutu president was killed when his helicopter was shot down supposedly by the rebel forces. --> genocide of 500,000-1,000,000 Tutsi civilians and moderate Hutus.
: 2003 Darfur (w. part of Sudan) had many non-Arab farmers. Two Darfur rebel groups took up arms against Sudanese gov't in response to attacks from Arab nomads in Darfur. Sudanese gov't then sent in the Janjaweed militants into Darfur killing 200,000 and displacing more than 1 million into Chad.
IMF brought Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir up on charges, but the genocide continued.
Green Revolution
-created as a response to world hunger. Use crossbreeding and genetic engineering to produce more food which is resistance to pests. Farmers also used new irrigation techniques, fertilizers, and pesticides.
Cons: small farmers can't keep up, and crop resistance to insects may cause a decline in bees, as well as loss of the old seed variaties.
Environmental Challenges:
Carbon Dioxide emissions increased earth's temperature possible leading so more severe natural disasters (like Hurricane Katrina in 2005). China now leading emitter of Carbon Dioxide (2007) and largest buyer of cars.
Efforts to fight environmental challenges
: Kyoto Protocol in '97 would reduce carbon emissions, but US said nah. However, there is now more research into alternative energy: wind, geothermal, solar, tidal, that are viable alternatives to fossil fuels.
Green Belt Movement
: '77 National Council of Women in Kenya helped to stop deforestation and soil erosion, while also providing more fuel for home cooking. Helped bring ecotourism to Kenya and spread to other nations in Africa.
Gender issues
: Better, but not great for women. Still have global issues for women's rights (human trafficking, honor killings, early marriage, etc.
Harty, AP World History
to Globalization
Basically, free trade does not always = fair trade.
Argue that corporations often ignore rights of workers, negative environmental impacts, and small businesses.
Huge protest against WTO in Seattle in '99.
and Tech
Globalization and new telecommunications tech have made the world feel smaller.
Let's think of the impact of the INTERNET for a moment.
Mobile tech has led to instant news. Videos taken on phones can immediately be disseminated.
Arab Spring: 2011 series of uprisings in the Middle East. Used Social Media to get global attention.
Challenges and
: process of interaction among peoples, gov'ts, and companies of different nations of the world.

Used recently after global trade exploded after Cold War. E. Euro and non-aligned nations (India) relaxed trade restrictions, and new Int'l Trade Organization increased globalization.
: Post WWII, US invested millions into JP, led to economic boom in '80s. AFC in '90s, knocked them down. Tsunami in 2011-- still not recovered (nuclear energy plant).
Asian Tigers
: Hong Kong, Singapore, S. Korea, Taiwan. Developed VERY quickly from '60s on. Rapidly industrialized and now international centers of banking, finance, and info tech.
: Major power after reforms in the '80s (Deng Xiaping), reopenede Shanghai Stock Market, now 3rd largest economy in da world.
: Association of South East Asian Nations. Collectively act as an economic unit to attract foreign investment and to compete against China as an economic power.
: Thanks Alexander Fleming in '28 discovered Penicillin, the 1st antibiotic to fill infections.
Newly treatable diseases
: Malaria, Tuberculosis, Cholera mainly affects poor people, so NGOs are imperative for their treatment and preventions. Smallpox and Polio also preventable due to vaccines in the 50s and 70s.
:1981-2014 killed more than 25 million. Many developing nations still have major issues with prevention due to misinformation on the spread of the disease. Though AIDS has not been cured, there are drugs to stop HIV from weakening the immune system. Treatment is expensive, though.
Heart Disease
: Due to lifestyle changes, genetics, and longer lives. Do have a heart transplant (thanks Christiaan Banard) and artificial heart (thanks Robert Jarvik).
: form of dementia, progressive memory loss, and eventually loss of bodily functions. Research aimed at a cure is still continuing.
WTO Members
Alexander Fleming
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