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The Universe

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Matthew Espen

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of The Universe

The Universe By: Matthew What Do We Know About
The Universe? Everything that exists is part of the universe It consists of galaxies, stars, planets and the objects and organisms on those planets The universe is huge and we know that it is expanding, but we don't know if there is an end to the universe at all The Sun The sun has a diameter of about 870,000 miles When compared with all stars in the universe, the sun is big However, when compared with stars that are fairly close to us, it is a smaller star Size Temperature The surface of the sun is 9,900 degrees fahrenheit The sun's core has a temperature of 27,000,000 degrees fahrenheit All in all, the sun is a fairly average sized star The sun's temperature is pretty average when compared with other stars in the universe Brightness Like size and temperature, the sun's absolute brightness is about average when compared to other stars Stars The sun has an apparent brightness of -27m
(magnitude) Star Systems Star Systems and Clusters A star system can be either a binary star system with two stars, or a triple star system with three A binary star system often consists of a brighter star and a dimmer star, where one rotates around the other If the dim star is so dim that it can not be seen, you can tell it is there because the gravity of the dim star, as it rotates around the brighter star, causes the brighter star to wobble Another way of seeing the dim star is if the dim star passes in front of the brighter star Clusters Open Clusters What Are
Star Clusters? A star cluster is a group of stars that: 1) Formed from the same nebula 2) Formed at about the same time 3) Are about the same distance from Earth Open clusters have a more irregular appearance They commonly consist of bright supergiants and have a lot of gas and dust They typically contain a few thousand stars or less Globluar
Clusters Globular clusters are large and contain older stars They are round and are packed together more than open clusters Globular clusters can contain a million or more stars Age The sun is about 4.57 billion years old It is about halfway through its life cycle In about 5 billion years, the sun will become a red giant Although it is not big enough to explode as a supernova, it is predicted that the outer layers of the sun will come off, and only the core will remain The core is now a white dwarf star, and over billions of years, it will cool and eventually become a black dwarf Types of Stars Temperature/Color Stars come in many different colors which are determined by their temperatures Stars can be colors like yellow, orange, red, white and even blue Brightness If you look at stars at night, you will see that some stars are very bright, and others are so dim you can hardly see them Variations in the brightness of stars is caused by variables such as distance from Earth and their size Also, some stars are just brighter than others because of the way they are Size Stars come in many different sizes, ranging from white dwarfs which are only about the size of Earth to supergaints which are hundreds of millions of miles across
(our sun is only 900,000 miles acrosss) Supergiants are huge, but even red giants make our sun look small Blue stars are tens of times bigger than our sun, and white stars are just a little bigger Finally, red dwarfs and white dwarfs are the smallest stars Apparent brightness is how bright a star is if you were looking from Earth Apparent Brightness Brightness, called magnitude in the scientific world, is measured on a scale where the smaller the number is the brighter the star, and where 1 is about 2.5 times brighter than 2 A magnitude of 6 is the dimmest a star can be for us to still be able to see it without a telescope or any other tools The sun has an apparent magnitude of -26.73 Absolute
Brightness Absolute brightness, or absolute magnitude, is how bright a star would be if it were about 32.6 lightyears away Absolute magnitude is measured with the same scale as apparent magnitude The sun has an absolute magnitude of 4.83m (magnitude) The Life Cycle of Stars Star Birth All stars form from nebulas A nebula is a big cloud that consists of gas and dust and is spread out over a large area 1. Gas and dust from the most tightly packed part of the nebula is pulled together by gravity 2. If this cloud has enough mass, it can become a star
(This stage is called a protostar) 3. When the cloud of dust becomes so tightly packed and hot, nuclear fusion begins where smaller atoms combine to form larger atoms and this creates energy The Life of a
Star 1. Stars create energy when hydrogen atoms combine to create helium atoms 2. As the hydrogen runs out, the star is forced to burn helium 3. As this happens, the core of the star contracts, and then the outer layers will expand, therefore resulting in the star's size becoming bigger Also, as it expands, the star also will cool and will shine less bright than before 4. The expanding star is now a red giant or a supergiant (this is decided by the star's mass) Star Death 1. Outer layers of star float into space because they become so far away from the star 2. These outer layers become a glowing cloud of gas 3. This is called a planetary nebula, where only the core of the star remains in the center 4. This core will become a white dwarf star, which has about the same mass that our sun has, but it is only about the size of Earth 5. Since the white dwarf is only running on the leftover energy from the star, it will eventually stop glowing and become a black dwarf The Death of a Red Giant The Death of a Supergiant 1. A supergiant grows in mass and size very quickly 2. When a supergiant runs out of fuel, it can explode, and this is called a supernova 3. Some of the star material is blown away and it can create a nebula, which might therefore create a new star (sun) The leftover star material could form a neutron star, which is very small and dense, even more than a white dwarf Neutron stars can have three times the mass of our sun, but sometimes, they are only the size of a city Black Holes Some neutron stars emit a beam of light and spin very rapidly, called a puslar because they apear to pulsate (Lighthouse) Neutron Stars
and Pulsars When a huge star explodes, one with a mass 40 times as big as that of our sun, it can become a black hole The gas from the explosion is pulled together by gravity, shrinking past the neutron star stage It is so dense and the gravity is so strong that not even light can escape Galaxies Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram What is a Galaxy? A galaxy is a group of stars, gas and dust that are held together in a cluster by gravity They can contain stars, star systems and star clusters There are multiple types of galaxies Spiral Galaxies A spiral galaxy consists of a central group of stars that looks like a bulge in the center, and spirals coming out of the center The spirals often contain the newer stars because that is were the most gas and dust is, whereas the center contains most of the older stars There is a different type of spiral galaxy, called a barred spiral galaxy, which has a bar like bulge in the center 2/3 of spiral galaxies are barred spirals galaxies Eliptical Galaxies Eliptical galaxies appear to be a circle of stars They mostly contain older stars and don't have a lot of gas and dust between the stars Since there is not a lot of gas and dust, there are usually not any new stars forming Irregular Galaxies Irregular galaxies don't have a specific shape, but are just randomly shaped clusters of stars They have a lot of gas and dust, and therefore contain many younger, bright stars They are smaller than other galaxies The Milky Way
Galaxy Our solar system is located in a barred spiral galaxy, called the Milky Way Scientists think that our solar system is in one of the spirals of the galaxy Beginning to End Really big stars that have masses of more than
40 times that of our sun might become a black hole when they die After the star explodes, what is left is a mass that is more than five times the mass of our sun, with a gravity so strong that it pulls the surrounding gas in, becoming denser and denser Black Holes The Big Bang Astronomers have a theory that the universe used to be packed into the size of the tip of your pencil They think it was so hot and dense that it exploded, and over time it expanded and cooled and life began to come into existence and atoms formed, and after 200 million years they think stars and galaxies started to form Expanding Universe Astronomers have discovered that because of the big bang, the universe is expanding Edwin Hubble observed that almost all other galaxies, except for those that are close to us, are moving apart
(raisin bread example) End of the Universe There are several different theories for how the universe will end 1. The Big Crunch: The universe will end in a reverse big bang 2. The Big Chill: All the stars and galaxies in the universe will eventually freeze 3. The Big Rip: Gravity will eventually be overcome and the universe will be ripped apart Measuring
Distance The Lightyear The universe is huge and therefore, it isn't practical for scientists to use measurements like feet, or even miles to measure distances in space For example the milky way is about 587,849,981,000,000,000 miles in diameter, which is just a tiny distance when compared to distances such as the distance between galalxies Therefore, scientists use what is called a light year to measure the distances between objects in space 1 lightyear = 5,865,696,000,000 miles The milky way galaxy is around 100,000 lightyears in diameter, which is a lot easier to write Parallax Parallax can be used to measure how far a star is away from us It only works for stars that are closer to us, not for those that a really far away Exploring
Space Famous Discoveries Coppernicus: Disproved that the Earth was the center of the universe Edwin Hubble: Gave evidence supporting the theory that our universe is expanding Stephen Hawking: Provided information about black holes, the beginning of the universe and the structure of the universe Present ObservingSpace Telescopes There are several people who contributed to the invention of the telecope Hans Lippershey invented the refracting telescope, where light is focuse through the telescope and hits the eyepeice (better for closer objects) Isaac Netwon invented the reflecting telescope, where the light bounces of off two mirrors and then hits the eyepeice (used for farther objects because of price) Observatories The basic defenition of an observatory is a building that has a telescope in it They usually have very advanced telescopes in them that allow for a really good, clear image of space Observatories are usually on mountains, higher up and therefore free from city lights and the pollution that is found in major cities Some observatories are in space as well, such as the Hubble Space Telescope Exploring
Space Manned
Missions There have been 17 Appollo missions and 22 space shuttle missions Within the Appollo missions, there have been 6 moon landings and 9 missions that have left the low orbit of Earth Both the Appollo program and the space shuttle program have ended Unmanned
Missions There have been many unmanned space missions where we haven't sent people There have been four mars rovers:
-Opportunity (working)
-Curiousity (working) The End Math
Application If you were on an aiplane traveling 900 kilometers per hour, how long will it take you to travel around VY Canis Majoris, a star with a diameter of 2,800,000,000 km? Math Application
Answers Diameter = 2,800,000,000 km Radius(d/2) = 1,400,000,000 km Circumference(2 x 3.14 x r) = 8,792,000,000 km Travel time in hours to go around star
C/900 km per hr(D/R=T) = 9,768,889 hrs. Travel time in years to go around star
T/(365 x 24) = 1,114 years Daily Activities Day 1 Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram Quiz Take this quiz on the Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram Click on the link, scroll down to the bottom of the website and click on the picture to take the quiz! http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/star_life/hr_interactive.html Day 2 Label the Diagram Read the info on this website about the different layers of a star http://www.ehow.com/info_8214357_parts-star.html Then, complete the worksheet about the parts of a star Day 3 Watch the video about the Hubble Space Telescope Then, answer the questions you were given BE PREPARED TO SKIP THE AD IN THE MIDDLE OF THE VIDEO Day 4 Take the quiz you were given covering my entire presentation (You can look at my prezi for information if there is a question that you don't know the answer to)
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