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Ain't I A Woman?

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Jason Flanagan

on 12 September 2013

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Transcript of Ain't I A Woman?

Read the speech.

As you read, highlight what is going on in the speech - or you can write them down in your notebook.

After you've read, identify any more important things in the speech that missed the first time.
“I am glad to see that men are getting their rights, but I want women to get theirs, and while the water is stirring I will step into the pool.”
In 1851 Sojourner went to the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention and gave a powerful speech called, “Ain’t I A Woman?”
This speech was taken down and published by Frances D. Gage
Who is Sojourner Truth?
That's all I'm going to say. You need to find out the rest in a ....
Go online and find out as much information on Truth as you can.
Find out her birthplace, upbringing, education, personal life, inspirations, professional work, death, etc. - anything that helps us understand the writer and the time she lived in.
Write up a research report on Word using 12 pt. Times or Arial font, 1-inch margins and double spacing. Turn it into Edmodo.
Judging by only what you've read, who is the speaker, and what do you know about her? You're going solely on what you've read in the speech. Write your answers in your notebook. For each attribute of the speaker, provide evidence for your claim.
Rhetorical Devices
Attempting to convince someone by emphasizing credibility of reputation
What makes someone
Professional Reputation
Once more: Ethos is an argument that appeals to people based on how credible the speaker is. The more we trust someone, the more likely we are to believe what the say is true.
Attempting to convince someone by appealling to their emotions
That's not fair!
Now I'm angry!
This is going to work!
Man, I feel sad.
I feel sorry for her.
Motivation and sympathy are results of pathos
I'm so excited!
"To be persuasive, you must be believeable; to be believeable, you must be credible; to be credible, you must be truthful."
- Edward R. Murrow, one of the world's most respected journalists
Once more: The aim of pathos is get your audience to share the same emotion as the speaker. Typically, pathos is used to generate feelings of sympathy, pity, or fear.
Attempting to convince someone by using logic
What makes something logical?
A step-by-step explanation of your reasoning
Valid points
There are also other rhetorical devices. Know any?
and Rebuttals
Addressing Bias/Stereotypes
Rhetorical Questions
Facts and Statistics
Personal Anecdotes
1. What are things that you have done or have heard of other people doing to inspire change?
Write your answer in your notebook.
2. What have you discovered about how people inspire change? In other words, what do people do in order to inspire change?
Write your answer in your notebook.
Talk to your partner about your answer.
One person from each group share out.
Talk to your partner about your answer.
One person from each group share out.
3. Lastly, what are your thoughts about the rights, abilities, and freedoms for women in this country?
Write your answer in your notebook.
Talk to your partner about your answer.
One person from each group share out.
RI.9-10.2 - Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
SL.9-10.1 - Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
Now take three of those moments from your Gist List and explain their significance to the entire speech. You may have already identified main ideas, subjects, and purposes.
How do these speakers argue to inspire change through words?
What are the characteristics of an effective argument?
"Ain't I A Woman?" by Sojourner Truth
It is the people:
to whom the speaker is addressing
or the people the speaker wants to address
Closure 1

See Edusoft sheet
SOAPS_ _ _ _ + Theme
Questions that the audience already knows the answers to; speaker doesn't need reply
Meant to get the audience to agree with speaker
Isn't this simple?
Repeating key words or phrases that stick in the audience's mind.
Saying key words and phrases that get the speaker's point across
Using key words or phrases that become catchy when repeated.
Disproving a bias and setting the record straight can persuade an audience to let go of pre-conceived notions and/or their schemas developed around the speaker's idea.
Use a similar sentence structure to create rhythm.
Create rhythm to allow the audience to follow your words.
Allow your audience to see your argument makes sense through parallelism.
Taking notes about rhetorical devices will increase your knowledge of them by 50%.
A fact is hard to argue, though facts can be misconstrued.
8 out of 10 people who hear statistics are likely to believe them.
"Hearing it straight from the source is a good way to prove you are right," said Mr. Flanagan.
According to English teachers interviewed in this class, the best way to add support to your claim is to "get others to say your idea is great because it provides ethos."
I once used a personal anecdote of an immigrant in an essay on immigration. It helped make my paper persuasive and got me a good grade. Often times, the best evidence for an argument is experience.
You may think that bringing up your opponent's argument will only strengthen their position.
But on the contrary, you can use their argument against them by pointing out their flaws.
You can also anticipate their criticism of you argument and address them ahead of your opposition.
(This is one of the best forms of rhetoric.)
Often times audio speakers (people who actually speak) face impromptu audiences or an audience that needs to be persuaded.
In literature, the writing speaker has the luxury of picking an audience to address, meaning he or she is directing their words at particular people
For example,

Harrison Bergeron had to address an audience that was not perceptive to his idea. Therefore, he had to design his speech and actions to persuade a mixed audience.
For example, Ray Bradbury knew his audience would be aware of technology; therefore, he structured his writing to tell the audience his theme of the perils of over-dependence on technology.
Who is the physical audience that Truth is addressing?
Who is the audience that Truth wants to reach? Who is she really talking to?
It's the attitude, or emotion, of the speaker.
Not to be confused with mood,which is the feeling the reader gets from the text.
But they use the same words.
How would you characterize the tone of these faces?
Wrap-up: Avoid using simple terms to describe tone. Other "big words" are more specific to describe the exact tone.
SOAPSTone + Theme
How did you decide which sentence or phrases to select and how to explain them?
Gist List
Going Deeper
How did you decide which sentence or phrases to select and how to explain them?
What is Truth's central argument?
After you written down a sentence or two that defines Truth's argument, provide evidence from the text to support your claim.
What did you do and think about in order to identify Truth’s argument?
RI.9-10.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance the point of view on purpose.
SL.9-10.3 – Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
What rhetorical methods does Sojourner use to build her argument?
Judging by only what you've read, who is the speaker, and what do you know about her? You're going solely on what you've read in the speech. Write your answers in your notebook. For each attribute of the speaker, provide evidence for your claim.
Notebook Checklist
1. Truth Pre-Reading
2. Significance
3. Central Argument
4. Notes on Rhetorical Devices
5. Audience
6. Tone
7. Changing Tone
8. Language
In your notebook, answer the following prompt.

How do you inspire people to change? If you want to change things, how do you get people to agree with you?
Analysis of Rhetorical Devices
We're going to discuss this question -
... but we're going to document our answers on Google Docs,
... and here's what you'll do:
First, go through the speech paragraph by paragraph (they're numbered) and identify examples of rhetorical devices that Truth used in that paragraph.
Then explain what the intended effect is of the device - why does Truth use this device? What does she hope to gain from using this device?
Now, working in pairs, discuss your answers to the paragraphs. By combining and refining your answers, come up with a solid response for each paragraph. This response must identify the type of device used and an explanation behind its purpose.
Closure 2

See Edusoft sheet
Write your answer to the question below in your notebook.

Which of the following best describes the central argument of Truth's speech?
How would you characterize the overall tone of Truth's speech?
Give evidence!
Does Truth change her tone during the speech? If so, why does she do this?
Give evidence!
Closure 3

See Edusoft sheet
What's the title of the speech?
Is there a problem with the word choice?
Closure 3

See Edusoft sheet
Sojourner Truth is a resilient person. (Look it up with any tool available.)

Now find one piece of evidence in the text that supports this claim. Then explain why it supports the claim.
Go to bit.ly/truthanalysis
Fill out the form with your answers
Be sure to correctly fill out the form.
When done, hit 'Submit.'
A. Everyone should have equal rights.
B. Women should get equal treatment.
C. Black women should have a stronger role.
D. Slaves should be free.
Which of these pieces of evidence best support your choice? Write out your answer.

A. That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages.
B. What's that got to do with women's rights or negro's rights?
C. Where did your Christ come from?
D. And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them.
Now in one to two sentences, explain how your evidence supports your answer.
Answer the following in your notebook. (A warm-up check may or may not occur today.)

What word or words would you use to describe your ATTITUDE during the Thanksgiving break? For each word you used (and one word can suffice), explain why you had that attitude and how it was conveyed (shown).
Changing Tone
Read the following passage
Then that little man in black there, he says women can't have as much rights as men, 'cause Christ wasn't a woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him.
What is the tone of this passage?
Explain your answer
Now, change the tone so it's the opposite or considerably different from the original tone. To do this, you must change the word choice and language - but keep the same content!
Read the following sentence and determine the tone. Write out what you think the tone is.

Man, kids in this school are so ratchet! We can't do anything because of these immature fools!

Now, rewrite this sentence by changing the tone. Keep the argument intact, but change the tone. You will need to use different words.
Now find another passage within the text. Write it out. Then rewrite it so you can change the tone.
Changing tone can involve the following:
using slang, or changing slang to academic words.
altering the emotion of the words, but not the content
changing the language to reach an audience - formal vs. informal
First and Second Read
Rhetorical Devices
Tone Activity
Read the following passage from the speech.

Then they talk about this thing in the head; what's this they call it? [Intellect, somebody whispers] That's it, honey. What's that got to do with women's rights or negro's rights?
If my cup won't hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn't you be mean not to let me have my little half measure-full?
Is Truth really talking about cups?
If not, then why is she talking about cups in a speech about equal rights?
When a writer uses one idea to explain a completely different idea, we call that a
In other words, a metaphor is a comparison of two unlike things.
Let's break the passage down. In your notebooks make this chart:
Breaking Down a Metaphor
What is she literally talking about (the actual words)
What she really means (the unspoken words)
She is talking about cups.
Men are quarts.
Women are pints.
is worth more than a
(two pints make one quart).
She asking if it would be mean if her little half-measure (a pint, which is half a quart) filled to the top.
Is there a difference between a quart and a pint?
Now that we know the literal part, we must now
out what she really means.
In metaphors, each thing or action represents something else. So what do the cups represent?
Figurative language
- using comparison and images to describe something. Usually requires you to
out what it really means.
So if the cups represent men and women, what is represented inside the cups? She talks about having her "half-measure" filled. Filled with what? Remember, it's not a tangible thing.
If the cups are people, and they are filled with rights, what is she saying in the passage?
Read the following sentences.

Sojourner Truth was a slave.
She was uneducated.
She spoke out against slavery and for the equal treatment of women.

Combine these sentences into
complete and coherent sentence.
Other examples of figurative language:
- direct comparison using "like" or "as" - She's as angry as a bull
- mental pictures created by using descriptive language (Pedestrian)
- an exaggeration to create emphasis - I will die if I hear that again.
Symbolism -
things or people represent and idea - the "Ring" represents greed/power

We have determined that Sojourner Truth's tone is indignant (anger marked by injustice). But let's say we want to compare her tone to something. What things, people, or ideas can we compare her anger to? For example, I could say Sojourner Truth was a bull chasing a matador. A bull is angry because of the abuse it has taken.
Refer back to the warm-up and develop a metaphor for the speech.
You can compare Truth's attitude, her personality, even her speech.
You can also substitute her metaphor with one of your own.
Ultimately, you must make a metaphor. Work backwards - take what she means and find something that is similar in nature.
Find a metaphor in a poem or in a song (any song will do).
Write out the metaphor.
Explain what the writer/singer is really saying behind the literal words.
Lastly, opine about value of the metaphor - is it a good one? Is it appropriate for the song or poem? (This is your opinion.)
The Three Appeals
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