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Indiana Bat

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Georgianna Wiseman

on 17 May 2018

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Transcript of Indiana Bat

Indiana Bats exhibit the characteristics of all living things:
Have a cellular structure
Metabolize to get and use energy
Grow, develop, & reproduce
Respond to their surroundings
Of the millions of living things on earth,
(Tillery, Enger, & Ross, 2009)
Thousands of plants and animals are threatened or endangered of becoming extinct! One of which is the ...
Indiana Bat
Unique Special Characteristics...
front limbs connected by thin membrane
(IUCN, 2012)
The Indiana Bat has many unique characteristics...
Elongated fingers, connected by a membrane, forming wings
The Wing
Claw on thumb used for
crawling
(Whitaker, Brack, Sparks, Cope, & Johnson, p. 7)
Small brown to black mole-like furred bat
Found in caves and trees throughout the Eastern United States (Whitaker, et al.)
Listed on the Endangered Species List since 1967 (Graham, 1994)
Short neck moves center of gravity to chest enabling flight.
Echolocation
Able to detect:
distance
direction
movement
Able to build a "mental sound map"
(Picture Courtesy of Conservation Fund, 2012)
(Holmes, 1998)
(Perry, 1998)
(Picture courtesy of Uhaul.com)
Delayed fertilization:
Bats mate before hibernating in the fall
Fertilization occurs in the spring
Giving birth to a single pup
No known genetic diseases due to difficulty of study
(US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009)
So why is Indiana bat endangered?
loss of habitat
Indiana bats hibernate in caves
67% of Indiana bats in Indiana hibernate in just 3 caves
Hibernation is interrupted by visitors to the caves
(Picture courtesy of www.siec.k12.in.us)
Roost in trees during summer months

Less appropriate trees, such as shagbark hickory in sunny locations
Agricultural Chemicals:
Bats may eat contaminated insects
Drink contaminated water
Absorb from recently sprayed areas
In 2006, a new threat was discovered...
(U.S. Forest Service, 2012)
Indiana Bat Habitat:
Winter:
caves
mines
Summer:
trees
Range:
Eastern half of the United States
Over half hibernate in Southern Indiana
(FWS, 2012)
Why are Indiana Bats So Important?
Important consumers of the food web of the Eastern United States
(Picture Courtesy of www.Whiteriverwatchers.org)
Special Niche:
Indiana Bats eat many insects, such as:
small moths
flies
beetles
some mosquitoes
The bat eats thousands of crop-destroying insects, saving crops, as seen in the following video clip
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FAlhjNdUZAk)
The Indiana Bat is very similar to the Little Brown Bat.
In fact, they were considered the same species until 1928.
No record of hybridization found.
(Whitaker, et. al)
White Nose Syndrome (WNS)-named for the white fungus growing around the bat's nose and mouth--began killing hundreds of thousands of bats.
(Ravenswood Media, Inc. 2009)
White Nose Syndrome has come to Indiana.
To try to slow the spread of WNS,
Caves have been closed throughout the Eastern United States.
(Photo taken at Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell Indiana, July 30, 2012)
(Ravenswood Media, Inc. Bats)
(Ravenswood Media, Inc. 2009)
Fossil records indicate that 26 families evolved by the end of the Eocene Period--33.5 million years ago.
Throughout the fossil record to today's modern bats, there has been very little change. Bats seem to have evolved very quickly and changed very little over the years of existence.
(Currie, 2012)
Recent fossil finds have solved the question which evolved first--flight or echolocation? Two fossils found in 2003 indicate that flight came first (Randerson, 2008).
52.5 million year old bat fossil found in Wyoming, August 2003
(Picture courtesy of Randerson, 2008)
To help cave bats, many commercial caves have
specially designed bat gates have been placed at the entrances of many caves.
limited cave tours during winter months
Specially designed bat gates keep people out, allow the cave to breathe, and bats to come and go as needed.
(Picture courtesy of siec.k12.in.us)
Information on display at the Nature Center at Spring Mill State Park, (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 2012)
The fight continues to save this unique,, insect-eating mammal.
The loss of the Indiana bat will permanently change the ecosystem in caves affecting other cave species.
Fewer bats mean more insects to destroy crops and trees. This can lead to the use of more pesticides, leading to higher food prices and more damage to the environment.
Do your part to help save the Indiana Bat!
(Picture courtesy of St. John Fisher College)
References
Bryson, B. (2008). A really short history of nearly everything. New York, NY: Delacorte Press.

Conservation Fund. (2012). Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis), Greening the Crossroads. Retrieved July 25, 2012 from http://www.conservationfund.org/green-infrastructure-indiana/wildlife

Currie, S. Bat evolution. Organization for BatConservation. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.batconservation.org/drupal/art-bat-evolution

Graham, G.L. (1994). Bats of the World. New York, NY: A Golden Guide from St. Martin’s Press.

Holmes, K.J. (1998). Bats. Mankato, MN: Bridgestone Books, Capstone Press.

Indiana Department of Natural Resources. (July 30, 2012). Nature Center, Spring Mill State Park.

IUCN. (2012). IUCN Red list of threatened species. Version 2012.1. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from www.iucnredlist.org.

Perry, P.J. (1998). Bats: The amazing upside-downers. Danbury, CT: Grolier Publishers.

Randerson, J. (2008). Fossils solve mystery of bat evolution. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/feb/13/bat.evolution

Ravenswood Media, Inc. (Producer). (2009). The battle for bats: White nose syndrome.
Retrieved August 1, 2012 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdm8_51KNLE Ravenswood Media, Inc. (Producer). Bats—John A.

Whitaker, PhD. Retrieved August 1, 2012 from link on http://www.cavebiota.com/.

Saint John Fisher College. (2012). Endangered land animals. Retrieved July 13, 2012 from http://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/ctm03222/e-port/endangered_land_animals_in_new_y.htm

Tillery, B.W., Enger, E.D., & Ross, F.C. (2008). Integrated science (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Uhaul. com. (2012). Echolocation: Ultrasound-heard by human ears. Retrieved July 25, 2012 from http://www.uhaul.com/SuperGraphics/264/2/Enhanced/Venture-Across-America-and-Canada-Modern/Missouri/Echolocation

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2012). Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). Endangered Species. Retrieved July 7, 2012 from http://www.fws.gov/midwest/Endangered/mammals/inba/index.html

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (September 2009). Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalist) 5 Year Review: Summary and evaluation. Bloomington, IN: Bloomington Ecological Services Field Office.

U.S. Forest Service. (2012). Region 9: Indiana bats: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved July 7, 2012 from
http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/indianabat.htm

Whitaker, J.O., Brack, V. Sparks, D.W., Cope, J.B., & Johnson, S. (USI) Bats of Indiana. Terre Haute, IN: Indiana State University: Center for North American Bat Research and Conservation.

White River Watchers of Madison County, Indiana. (2012). Bat facts. Conservation Kid’s Corner. Retrieved August 1, 2012 from http://www.whiteriverwatchers.org/conservation%20kids%20bat%20facts.htm

www.youtube.com. (March 5, 2012). Save the Indiana Bat! Retrieved August 1, 2012 from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FAlhjNdUZAk.

Please wait for video to load.
Conservation Fund, 2012)
Ways to help the Indiana Bat:
Be bat friendly
Build bat houses (see http://www.batconservation.org/drupal/free_plans for instructions)
Plant a bat garden (see http://www.batconservation.org/drupal/gardening-for-bats for a list of evening flowering plants to plant)
Donate time or money to bat organizations
Share what you have learned about bats with others
(Conservation Fund, 2012)
Full transcript