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Transcript of IAPS2
Jessica P. What is a Social Institution?
A social institution is the organized way a society develops to meet its basic needs; e.g, the development of armies for the defence of a nation The Basic Institutions Social scientists have found that all societies develop at least five basic
social institutions. Families Help society's members replace themselves Provide protection for the next generation Socialize the young Economic Institutions Help society's members meet their physical needs Range from the basic gathering groups to giant multinational corporations Include farms, banks, business, and so on require that all members agree to the decisions made empower individuals assist members in group decision making Political Institutions Educational Institutions organize the way society passes on its culture, knowledge, and values from one generation to another Religious Insitutions help people find an ultimate purpose in their lives aid in developing the spiritual side of society provide guidelines for personal behaviour and social interaction The Development of Social Institutions Foraging societies Agriculture societies Industrial societies defined as a way of life based on hunting wild animals, fishing and harvesting wild grains, fruits and roots. some tribes such as the !Kuna San still live by foraging even though they have contact and trade with other, non-foraging societies. most foraging societies form bands with closely a hundred people. the bands were mobile, people shifted from one band to another, and the society was egalitarian. existed about 10 000 years ago took place around the beginning of 10 000 BCE, centain people settled an agriculture way of life in the great river vallys of the Middle East, India, China, Central Mexico and South Africa fertility of these vallys grew, and supported greater numbers of people for food. villages grew into cities, and at this stage social institutions seperated from the family. these societies developed a seperate priestly class - the Economic Institution the world became industrialzed, first in Europe, then in North America, Japan and etc. the following chart consists of major institutions found in modern industrial nations, and includes the values and norms of each social institutions. In your opinion, which modern institution(s) are important to the following people: Children Teenager A retired person A disabled person An unemployed person A soldier A dermatologist A prime minister A person entering the workforce Role Expectation in Institutions For an institution to function effectively, it must insist upon certain predictable behaviours or roles from its members. Example - A military institution insists that a soldier's role is to obey, fight and face possible injury or death on the orders of officers. Health Institutions insist that a doctor's role is to heal the sick to the very best ability of his or her ability. Schools maintain certain role expectations for students, teachers and principles, which change over time, based on certain values. Role Expectations in Your School The role expectation as a student is basically to: remain reasonably quiet when teachers are instructing to complete homework and assignments. show respect for teachers, principals, and other students achieve high marks and maintain a good attendance The role expectation of teachers is to: teach the required curriculum to the best of their ability and to treat all students fairly and without favouritism The role expectation of principals is to: show leadership in several areas of school life and practices responsible for the overall operation around their school ensure students feel safe enough to take risks when expressing their ideas or attempting new learning experiences Behaviour Changes With Assumed Roles a person's behaviour changes as he or she enters a specific social institution. the behaviour change occurs because the individual assumes a new role, based on a new in the social institution. status Status- the position a person has within a social institution 0.15 - 2.15 5.48 - 7.10 the role expected of an individual depends on that individual's position or status within the social institution interaction between one another within the social institution depends on ones respective status For example - your relationship with your teachers may be quite friendly, but with your friends you would tend to be more open and "homie"/friendly. in return, your teachers try to remain on friendly terms with their students, but are expected not to favour one student over another. Egalitarian - when there is little distinction between people on the basis of life. Theories of Social Institutions there are two schools of thought on social institutions: The Functionalist School Functionalists believe that social institutions work together to serve the basic needs of society and contribute toward the common good of the whole society. Example- the functionalist school perspective can be compared to parts of a person's body - heart, lungs, stomach etc. Each part contributes to the healthy functioning of each other part, to complete a healthy living system of the individual.
The Conflict School The conflict school agrees with the fact that social institutions were developed to meet the basic needs of a society. However, they maintain that, over time, institutions have come to serve the interests of a small group in the economy. Example- the wealthy control the major corporations, finance the political parties to get their interests made into the law, and make the major decisions of the nation The Real Purpose of School Functionalists believe that each institution operates in the interests of all members of society. Conflict theorists believe that our institution operate to serve only the interests of the dominant economic class.