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Henry the Navigator

Alex, Raigan and Kenzie

Dale Solberg

on 23 August 2018

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Transcript of Henry the Navigator

The blue stands for Democrats
Raigan - 1-9
Europe wanted to trade with Asia because they could get a lot more money and their curiosity got the best of them. Arab's high prices also drove a lot of people away.
Early European Trade Routes
Pueblos, Missions, and Persidios
Spain established a 'Colonial Society':
Peninsulares: were very wealthy, thought they had higher power then any other group.

creoles: they were the middle class.

Mestizos: Live on the fringe of society.
a river
Spaniards used Native American's as slaves.
To spread Christianity among the local Native Americans. The missions were part of the first major effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific Coast region, the most northern and western of Spain's North American claims.
what was a mission settlement?
A person devoted to bringing about reform, as in politics or society. (initial capital letter) any of the leaders of the Reformation.
what is a reformer?
European Countries Area Explorer




Great Britain

The Netherlands
Da Gama
Juan Ponce De leon
Sieur de La Salle
James Cook
Henry Hudson
The word renaissance means "rebirth" in French. The Renaissance was a period of creativity and artistry.
created different types of
such as the
printing press
and the
printing press
- Machine that allowed people to duplicate writings or maps faster and more accurately.

- Measures the position of the stars.

- Accurately determines the direction your proceeding in.

- A person who builds/maintains technology.

- Application of scientific knowledge
The early settlers were thought to have migrated across Bering Strait from Asia to North America.
The early settlers were thought to have migrated across Bering Strait from Asia to North America.
Why do u think a person wants to become
a colonist?
Islam started to spread around A.D 600s in the Middle East and Africa. The rise of Islam soon ended Western Europe's isolation. Timbuktu became the center of Islamic art and learning, they used
to worship. Mansa Musa was Mailis King and was also a muslim. He traveled to the Muslim holy city of Makkah (Mecca). He returned from this
with an Arab architect.
They wanted to be free from Great Britain.
mosques- Muslim houses of worship.

pilgrimage- a religious journey
Early Entrepreneurs
An entrepreneur is someone who starts their own business. Europeans were tired of the Arab's high prices.
Isis is trying to erase boundaries in order to create a new state. Having fulfilled the legal requirements for the caliphate means that all existing
groups and muslims around the world are religiously obligated to swear loyalty to the new Caliph.
Powerful Countries
Spain, Portugal, England and France began to establish national laws, courts, taxes, and armies to replace those of the local rulers. These monarchs trade and make their countries even stronger and wealthier.
Jihadi- a religious duty of muslims
Columbus sailed on behalf of Spain. Prince Henry set out from Portugal and explorer Marco Polo who wrote about Asia's people, great riches, and splendid cities in his book, Travels, which was widely read in Europe.
The conquistadors had special power such as the right to explore and create settlements. The Inca and the Aztec were defeated so easily because the Spanish had animals and weapons they had never seen before. There were also diseases brought over from the Europeans that they had no immunity to.
Prince Henry Group
What is an anchor baby?
Used to refer to a child born to a noncitizen mother
in a country which has birthright citizenship,
especially when viewed as providing an advantage
to family members seeking to secure citizenship or
legal residency.
Where the Powerful countries are Located
the governor went back to England to get supplies and he made it and he couldn't go back for 3 years and when he got back there was nothing left. The most logical answer would be a hurricane because they had no idea what it was and that would explain the nothing left.
They grew corn and lived by Burgesses. There was an indian that helped them named Pocahontas.
They could have a new life and a new religious leader. They were also curios about was over there.
Because they are doing it for a different cause then the Catholics themselves.
pilgrimage was when the europeans went to the new world. They landed at Plymouth. Their ship was the Mayflower.
because they wanted other people to do their work because they were to lazy to do it themselves.
because the settlers were cutting down trees and ruining the ecosystem.

Chapter 4
Hutterites established their colonies in South America. Where did they come from?
black smithing
ship building
Question 1
They moved from Germany and Austria to
Moravia which today is Czech Republic.
lesson 2(question 2)
lesson 2 (question 5)
Northern Colony Farmers
images representing the small businesses that existed in most towns. There were blacksmiths, shoemakers, furniture makers, and gunsmiths.
rice, tobacco, indigo and cotton
Slave codes were laws in each U.S. state, which defined the status of slaves and the rights of masters. These codes gave slave-owners absolute power over the enslaved
In a charter colony, the King granted a charter to the colonial government establishing the rules under which the colony was to be governed.
Question 4
A proprietary colony was a colony in which one or two Individuals, usually land owners, remaining subject to their parent state's sanctions, retained rights that are today regarded as the privilege of the state,
a colony ruled or administered by officials appointed by and responsible to the reigning sovereign of the parent state.
Farmers that lived in the Northern colonies learned how to subsistence farm. Subsistence farming produce just enough food to meet immediate needs. Fish was also a main food source.
The 13 colonies were established on the eastern coast of the United States. The 13 colonies were divided into three regions which included Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Georgia. Each of these colonies were established for different reasons.
Hutterites are religious, communal
branch of Anabaptist, who were
like the Amish.
the were nearly extinct in the
18th and 19th hundreds.
image showing the cultural diversity of the Middle colonies.

What does 'diversity' mean?
the state of being diverse; variety.
the state of being diverse; variety.
Triangle trade
a multilateral system of trading in which a country pays for its imports from one country by its exports to another
lesson 2 (question 11)
Critics of Slavery
Farming and Cash Crops
The middle colonies were mainly farmers. They grew large quantities of cash crops. Cash crops are crop that can be sold easily to gain money. The main cash crop varies with where people lived. Some places main cash crop was wheat, corn and rice. In Maryland and Virginia the main cash crop was tobacco. Farmers would send wheat and livestock as shipment to New York City and Philadelphia.
Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property. Often slaves can be bought and sold. Slaves can be held from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation
Bill Of Rights
What were they?
After time had passed the demand for workers was high. It became extremely hard to plant, tend, and harvest the crops alone. White landowners ended up using enslaved Africans to help with their harvests and planting. Years later, shiploads of human cargo arrived in North America. It was also a way they could get out of jail faster. If they worked for the landowners for usually about 7 years, they could be freed early.
Amendment 1: Freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly; the right to petition the government.
Amendment 2: Right to bear arms and maintain state militias (National Guard).
Amendment 3: Troops may not be quartered in homes in peacetime.
Amendment 4: No unreasonable searches or seizures.
Amendment 5: Grand Jury indictment required to prosecute a person for a serious crime. No "double jeopardy" -- being tried twice for the same offense. Forcing a person to testify against himself or herself prohibited. No loss of life, liberty or property without due process.
Amendment 6: Right to speedy, public, impartial trial with defense counsel, and right to cross-examine witnesses.
Amendment 7: Jury trials in civil suits where value exceeds 20 dollars.
Amendment 8: No excessive bail or fines, no cruel and unusual punishments.
Amendment 9: Unlisted rights are not necessarily denied.
Amendment 10: Powers not delegated to the United States or denied to states are reserved to the states or to the people.
The mercantilism is a theory of how nations build wealth. to build wealth and power, nations must export more goods to sell than imports?
distinguish import and export.
bring (goods or services) into a country from abroad for sale
send (goods or services) to another country for sale
African Americans
The enslaved Africans were torn apart often because slaveholders would sell a spouse, parent, or child. An African American is a person whose roots/ancestors are in Africa but they live in America. Some of the enslaved africans learned skills such as blacksmithing and/or weaving. If they were lucky enough they could buy their freedom and join the African Americans.
What was life like for people living in colonies.
The roles of individual members of the family differed between wealthy and poorer families. In poor and rural households, the family unit as a whole was more responsible for the daily operation of the family's household and business than in wealthier households where the business of the family was entrusted to the father and daily household chores were relegated to servants.
AFTER the colonists had relocated to the new world, and become familiar with their new surroundings, they began to discover the fallacy of most of their first notions and to adjust themselves to the new problems as best they could. The day when the settlement of a new world could be regarded as an experiment with possible fabulous results was over.
because there are all different kinds of religions and some people might not believe in god in the school so that is why we can't.
Lesson 3 (question 1)
lesson 3 (question 4)
The Two Principles of Government
What was the Great Awakening? Insert a short video
What does it mean by freedom of speech? What amendment is that?
because the each of them wanted more control over America than they had
lesson 3(question 7)
we are going to go into a massive debt and the u.s may or may not go bankrupt. Riots will break out and the whole u.s will be a catastrophe.
Native American day because the native american were here first so they technically founded america.
You are allowed to say your own opinion of something.
The two principles of government influenced the development of the United States greatly. Protective rights and representative legislatures are the two principles. They were also important parts to the U.S. Constitution.
lesson 4 (question 3)
Revolutions took place as more and more local people sought for control. A revolution is an overthrow of the government that has been forced.
In the beginning colonists liked it because they had a place to ship their raw materials too but since their population was growing they wanted to make their own goods instead of importing them from England. Colonists began shipping goods in secret and got away without
paying taxes
or government permission. This eventually caused tension/conflict between American colonies and England.
The elder William Pitt, later the first Earl of Chatham, was the driving force behind the British victory in the Seven Years War, known as the French and Indian War in North America.
Lesson 4 (question 6)
How did the British plan to pay for their large war debt created during the French Indian War?
The British thought the colonists should help pay for the rest of the cost of their own protection.
American Beliefs
"The Enlightenment"
In colonies, the Enlightenment increased interest in science. It also promoted the freedom of thought and expression. Many colonists were inspired by the Enlightenment.
1st Amendment
Also because the government owns most of the schools and businesses, and we can pick our religion so that is also why we cant.
Education played a big role in the values of colonists. At home, parents would teach their children to read and write. Having a family was a value as well. Some people started schools so people could read and study the Bible. Most schools in the middle colonies were private. Religion was also a high value.
Choosing Sides
The Native Americans sided with the French for many reasons. One of them being that they traded fur with them; the French didn't want to share/trade with the British. French trappers ended up marrying the Native American women. They had also claimed the Ohio River valley as theirs and had more land.
The Proclamation
The proclamation helped with conflict with the Native Americans. It kept the colonists on the coast; the British could control them. Some colonists thought The Proclamation limited their freedom of movement. They thought the British would interfere with their independence.
Native American Day because Columbus wasn't the one that was in America first. Native Americans were here first so the day should be named after them.
I think Native American Day because they were here first, so they deserve to be celebrated instead of Columbus Day.
lesson 2(question 14)
Lesson 2(question 8)
Lesson 2 (question 2)

The saying: “There are only two known things in life: death and taxes." means the only two things that are certain in life are taxes and death. If you're alive you can be sure you'll always pay taxes; at the end of life you can be sure that you'll be dead. It's almost the only two things you can't get out of in life.
What caused the Revolutionary War?
A slogan of the Revolutionary War and the years before. The colonists were not allowed to choose representatives to parliament in London, which passed the laws under which they were taxed. To be taxed only with the consent of one's representatives.
The American people were strongly independent. They wanted to do things for themselves. Great Britain was a long way away. The American people didn't want people an ocean away telling them how to live their lives.
“There are only two known things in life: death and taxes."
1. Protection
2. food
3. money
4. spending and saving
5. Military
Why Did the British Tax the Colonists?
A boycott is when you or a group refuse to take part in something. The colonists didn't buy British and European goods because the taxes were extremely high.
Because it was getting expensive to run a colony all the way across the ocean, so they taxed the colonists so they could get money. They also needed money for all the other government things they could do.
A propaganda is used to promote political point of views.
What are some ways that tax payers money is being wasted.
Government overpays for products and services
any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income. If you retire at 67 than you get 100%of the benefits. If your retire at 66 than you get 80%of the benefits.
What is Social Security
Improper Food Stamp Payments
What are the taxes British imposed on the American colonies?
Molasses Act ( molasses, rum,and sugar according to amount)

Sugar Act (wine according to amount,sugar, and textiles)

Stamp Act (paper. newspapers, and official documents like licenses and wills)

Town shend Act (glass,lead,paper,and tea)

Tea Act (can only get tea from West India Company tax on this tea was actually cheaper than other teas)
I would pay $10,450 because every thousand acre is 2.09. Multiply it by 5000 and you get $10,450.
Boston Tea Party
Lexington and Concord
A militia is a military force. A minuteman is the soldier in the militia that volunteered to be ready at a minutes notice. Lexington and Concord was one of the first battles in the Revolutionary War. The British heard the Patriots were storing powder and weapons in Lexington and Concord.
Giving weapons to other countries
The Tea Party evolved when the colonists were tired of paying taxes on tea, stamps, etc. They dressed up like indians in order to disguise themselves and threw tea over the ship.
Continental Congress
• Local real property taxes in South Dakota vary from 1 to 4 percent of the actual value of the structure. $1,290
What propaganda did Paul Revere spread?
Upset by the Boston Tea Party and other blatant acts of destruction of British property by American colonists, the British Parliament enacts the Coercive Acts, to the outrage of American Patriots, on this day in 1774. The Coercive Acts were a series of four acts established by the British government. The aim of the legislation was to restore order in Massachusetts and punish Bostonians for their Tea Party, in which members of the revolutionary-minded Sons of Liberty boarded three British tea ships in Boston Harbor and dumped 342 crates of tea—nearly $1 million worth in today's money—into the water to protest the Tea Act.
1. They closed the boston harbor until all the tea was piada for.
2. Any British official convictred of murder was to be tried in britain
3. No town hall meetings.
4. Any british troop could stay in any unoccupied house.
Revere's political involvement arose through his connections with members of local organizations and his business patrons
Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Where was it held?
Who was there?
George Washington, Richard Henry Lee, and Patrick Henry.
end the boycott of imports from britain
call for the formatiion of the colonial militias
imprison all british tax collectors
adopt the declaration of independence
What did they vote to do?
Continental Congress:
The First Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from twelve colonies
What is meant by “Don’t be a Benedict Arnold”. Who was he?
don't be a traitor that takes legions of good-natured but hoodwinked
Alex Jones
What does it mean?
Who was it?
The redcoats are the British; the loyalists remained loyal to the British Empire and monarchy; the Patriots were the colonists that fought against the British.
Olive Branch
The olive branch symbolizes peace. King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition and prepared for war against the colonists.
Who is Patrick Henry?
Declaration of Independance
Patrick Henry was an American attorney, planter.
The boston massacre was a conflict in which the colonists started throwing rocks and projectiles at the british troops and the british troops shot back and killed 5 innocent colonists.
Boston Massacre
29 a.
29 c.
29 d.
List of Greivances
It made them think that they could start their own revolution and fith there government to get out of the monarchy.
What did Richard Henry Lee propose or offered a resolution. What he recommend?
Colonists wanted to make their own laws because they were tired of being ruled.
i. "...all men are created equal" means everyone should be treated the same.
ii. “…endowed by a Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are LIFE, LIBERTY, and the pursuit of happiness” means there are 3 freedoms that people should have.; life, liberty and happiness.
iii. “That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men…” - governments are to protect us.
iv. “…right to abolish any Form of Government”. - We have our freedoms to vote; we have the right to abondon a Form of Government.
On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, introduced this resolution in the Second Continental Congress proposing independence for the American colonies.

Explain each of the following statements that list the RIGHTS of the citizens and the function of government.
Preamble: Explain how this section is the ‘why the Declaration was written’.
Resolution of Independence by the United States: This declares that the colonies are “Free and Independent States” with full power to do three things”. What three freedoms are listed?
Lee's resolution declared: "That these United Colonies are, and of right out to be, free and independent States
The Redcoats were the British
The Loyalists were the people in the colonies that still felt like the British were the superior power
The Patriots were the people fighting for America
It was called a civil war because some people went to fight with the british and the same country was fighting in the same country against each other (civil war)
Who are the ‘Redcoats’? Loyalists? Patriots? Why is the Revolutionary War referred also as a ‘Civil War’ too?
George Washington, Boston, it was about common sense and how to use it and to try to help the colonies break away from the British.He said "People, it’s all about common sense and that there is simple things that they need to do out there in the world."
It means to sign because John Hancock had a unique and stylish signature, like on the Declaration of Independence.
what is meant by the saying, “give me your john hancock”?
Declaration of Independance Video
Who are the ‘Redcoats’? Loyalists? Patriots? Why is the Revolutionary War referred also as a ‘Civil War’ too?
an introductory statement; preface; introduction
Chapter 5
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has refused to enforce laws
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance
He has forbidden the legislature to pass laws
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has refused to pass laws that would benefit particular states
He expects that states will forfeit their right of representation
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records
He made it difficult for the colonists to participate in governance
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has forbidden laws to be passed that establish judiciary powers
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has denied judges their independence to make decisions based on case facts and thelaw alone
He has changed the way our colonies are governed
He has forced us to keep troops in our houses
He has not passed laws that help the colonists
He has taxed us without consulting us
He has made war upon our people and our land

What important event caused us to declare July 4 Independence Day?
All with the date July 4, 1776, listed at the top. The deaths of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams on July 4, 1826, may even have helped to promote the idea of July 4 as an important date to be celebrated.
A chime that changed the world occurred on July 8, 1776, when the Liberty Bell rang out from the tower of Independence Hall summoning citizens to hear the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence by Colonel John Nixon.
What roles did the African Americans in the Revolutionary War?
Revolutionary War
What side did they side with?
Paul Revere's famous propaganda
He warned the colonists when he saw British troops. He said "The British are coming."
Liberty Bell
The British had a large army; the patriots army wasn't paid and weren't professional. The colonists knew they were outnumbered. The British also had more experience.
Advantages and disadvantages
Nathan Hale
The Revolution gave the blacks a chance to assert their drive for freedom.
Nathan Hale was a spy for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
When Nathan was captured by the British his last speech was: "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country."
The British offered blacks their freedom in return for their aid in fighting the Americans.
Blacks took up the offer not because they were fighting for the British but because they were fighting for their freedom.
It was an individual state army. They were rebelling they didn’t want to be under the rule of any king or congress so they said every colony should have their own army.
What was the purpose of Valley Forge?
They set up a camp there to protect them from the terrible winter and storms. Decent food, shelter, clothing and medicine was scarce. The Continental Army built shelter and gathered supplies from the countryside.
How was the view of slavery evolving in the North, especially in Pennsylvania.
In Pennsylvania the legislature of 1778 was made to gradually free slaves. This quest for freedom led some white Americans to question slavery. Other states started following Pennsylvania's example.
What was the result of the war in the South? Where was the deciding battle? What state was this in? Who led the British? Eventually, the Treaty of Paris was signed. What was the significance of this?

Most of the Native American sided with the British because they did not live in their midst and take their land all the time. The British and the Native americans were overpowered at Vincennes and that gave the Americans strength
How did the war in the West develop against the British and the Native Americans that fought with them?
Americans had won a lot of battles in the South. The British thought having the battle at sea was going to help them. At first it did then the Patriots used a 'hit-and-run' technique. This took place in South Carolina. The last battle was in Yorktown. Henry Clinton put General Cornwallis as their leader.

How did the young United States pay for the war?
What is inflation?
the action of inflating something or the condition of being inflated.
United States
Battle of Saratuga
started using guerilla warfare- weren't out in open. hid behind trees, colonists now had beter weapons.
British were supposed to come 3 ways to try to take over New England temtury.

Burgoyre decided to stay in Phiadelphia and the troup coming from Canada got stopped by the Rebels.
Geneva Conventions- WWI- laws of prisoner treatment- the British fought in open. Rebels started to hide behind trees and shut the generals.
made own money (currency)
War at sea- British and France had ships.

John Paul Jones- went and confronted British in England- his Quote was,"I have not yet begun to fight."

Blockade- not allow food and goods to come in to colonists.

France the blockaded the British.
Chapter 7
The Pledge of Allegiance
"I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
A government in which citizens rule through elected representatives.
Give the history of the ‘Pledge of Allegiance’.
What were the weaknesses of Articles of Confederation?
The Pledge of Allegiance was written in August 1892 by the socialist minister Francis Bellamy (1855-1931). It was originally published in The Youth's Companion on September 8, 1892. Bellamy had hoped that the pledge would be used by citizens in any country.

In its original form it read:

"I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."

In 1923, the words, "the Flag of the United States of America" were added. At this time it read:

"I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
- It didn't propose a way to add new states to the United States.
- The Articles of Confederation limited powers.
- It limited powers
- The new central government has no chief executive.
- All the states had to approve
Land Act of 1800
sovereignty: a country's independent authority and the right to govern itself

freedom: the quality or state of being free

independence: : the time when a country or region gains political freedom from outside control

The Constitution assigned to Congress responsibility for organizing the executive and judicial branches, raising revenue, declaring war, and making all laws necessary for executing these powers. The president is permitted to veto specific legislative acts, but Congress has the authority to override presidential vetoes by two-thirds majorities of both houses. The Constitution also provides that the Senate advise and consent on key executive and judicial appointments and on the ratification of treaties.

What is meant by each state retained ‘its sovereignty, freedom, and independence”? What initial powers did the Congress have? What couldn’t they do?
- Made it easier to buy land
- People were required to buy at least 320 acres of land at $2 per acre
- The buyer could pay half of the money at the time of purchase and the rest in four yearly payments.

What was slavery like in the New Republic?
- Though 1776 and 1786, 11 states except Georgia and South Carolina outlawed or taxed the importation of enslaved people.
- In the North slavery was not a major source of labor
- People began trying to end slavery.
- Pennsylvania passed a law to gradually free slaves.
- Still African Americans faced difficulties because of their skin.
- Slavery continued to spread South of Pennsylvania.
The Framers of the Constitution used three sources to help draft it. Explain the key components of John Locke and Montesquieu believed in that was used in drafting the Constitution.
-John Locke wrote that all people have natural rights. These rights include the rights to life, liberty and property.
- He also wrote that government is based on an agreement, or contract between the people and the ruler.
- Montesquieu declared that the powers of government should be separated and balanced against each other.
Explain in detail how the Electoral Collage works. How are the delegates decided? How many votes are needed to become President? What is it meant by the 'popular vote'?
-The Electoral College elects the president and vice president.
- Voters in each state choose the electors who make up the Electoral College.
- It depends on your population for how any electoral votes you have. It takes 270 electoral votes. S.D = 3 votes
- The popular vote is the vote for a U.S. presidential candidate made by the qualified voters, as opposed to that made by the electoral college.
- 2 senators per state (Mike Rounds and John Thune)
Insert an image of the Northwest Territory. Describe the process that allowed states to join the union. What did the Northwest Ordinance say about slavery?
Republic Democracy


supreme court
4. After winning the Revolutionary War, the Americans faced the daunting tasks of forming INDEPENDENT governments for both state and national levels. What kind of government was created by the Articles of Confederation? Did the governors have much power? Who held the most power?
7. Describe the ‘Ordinance of 1785’. What is a township? Section? Acre? How much did an acre cost?
What problems did the government face under the Articles of Confederation?
The first problem was that the new goverment could not settle disputes between states. The second problem was that foreign countries did not respect the nation. And the third was that the new goverment could not raise enough money.
What was Shay’s Rebellion about?
A violent insurrection in the Massachusetts countryside during 1786 and 1787, Shays' Rebellion was brought about by a monetary debt crisis at the end of the American Revolutionary War.
14-7 What compromises were reached in the new Constitution?
After still more deeply divided argument, a proposal put forward by delegates from Connecticut struck a compromise that narrowly got approved. They suggested that representatives in each house of the proposed bicameral legislature be selected through different means.
16-7 What is federalism? What are examples of today’s federalism programs?
the federal principle or system of government

Congress appropriates these grants to states for a specific purpose. Funds are allocated by a precise formula with detailed conditions imposed by the national government. Often states must contribute money to match federal funds, but categorical grants almost always come with a great many "strings" that demonstrate the "supremacy" of the national government.
Amendment 4
Amendment 12
Because congress did not have the power to tax, they had to find ways to raise money so they sold LAND. A township was a division of a county with some corporate powers; it is 6 miles by 6 miles. A section of land is 640 acres or 1 sq. Mile. An acre is 10,000 sq. meters or a hectare. The minimum of an acre was 1 dollar.
Money couldn’t buy much federal debt: couldn’t pay soldiers, still couldn’t tax: tried to import tax, failed: poor relations with Britain: poor relations with Spain, closed part of Mississippi.
outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory. The Northwest Ordinance had a bill of rights for the settlers in the territory. It guaranteed freedom of religion and trial by jury. It also stated, "There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in said territory."
The South wanted war
Describe the problems at ‘home and abroad’. (In what ways was the Confederate government weak?)
This Amendment prohibits unreasonable searches without a warrant.
19. Not all agree with the Federalism concept, why? What is the Bill of Rights? What does ratified mean?
antfeds-wanted a spread out, decentralized gov because they feared that a centralized one would revert back to monarchy like in england.

The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed to assuage the fears of Anti-Federalists who had opposed Constitutional ratification, these amendments guarantee a number of personal freedoms, limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and reserve some powers to the states and the public.

Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal. The term applies to private contract law, international treaties, and constitutions in federations such as the United States and Canada.
Amendment 8
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted
Legislative- makes the laws
Executive- carries out the laws
Judicial- evaluates laws

17. The first THREE articles of the Constitution established the three branches of government. Explain the functions of each branch.
a. Virginia Plan
Stronger national government, outline for the US constitution, consists of three branches, legislative: tax, regulate trade and veto state laws, Chief executive: (president) execute laws, court system: interpret the laws
b. New Jersey Plan
Three branches: Legislative-one house, executive, judicial branch

Ratified-sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement) making it officially valid
its a government ran by the people
13. The Constitutional Convention involved 55 people. What were the…
Federal Powers:
- Collect taxes
- Regulate interstate commerce
Coin money, regulate currency, set standards of weights and measures
- Declare war
- Raise and maintain an army and navy

State Powers:
The power to levy taxes
The power to borrow money
The power to charter corporations

The Constitution contains a system of
checks and balances
. This means each branch of government has ways to check, or limit, the power of the other branches.

- centers for Disease Control- The CDC focuses national attention on developing and applying disease control and prevention.
- Environmental Protection Agency- protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.
Department of Health and Human Services- Has the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
Head Start Program
- The Head Start Program is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families

Most states set up
two-house, or bicameral
legislatures to divide the work of government even further.

- Hamilton tried to improve the government's finances and strengthen the nation at the same time.
- The United States needed a way to borrow money for its government and economy. Hamilton proposed that the federal government take over and pay off the states' wartime debts.
- He believed that federal payment of state debts would give the states a strong interest in the success of the national government.
How did the economy develop under the guidance of Alexander Hamilton?
Chapter 9 and 10
What decisions did Washington and the new congress have to make about the new government?
What challenges on the frontier did the new government face?
How did different opinions lead to the first political parties?
Washington faced difficult challenges while in office. The British and French were pushing the United States to get more involved in their conflicts.
Washington knew that his decision would set precedents or traditions, that would help the nations future. In his first few years as president, Washington and the congress set up departments in the executive branch and set up a court system. Congress added the bill of rights to the constitution. Washington set a standard on how long a president should serve and for how the nation should relate to other nations.
How did Washington remain neutral in foreign conflict?
- Attacks came towards Washington in newspapers, usually it was people who supported Thomas Jefferson. The supporters of Jefferson and Hamilton were beginning to form the first political parties.
What important events occurred during the presidency of John Adams?
The nation was in the middle of a dispute with France when Adams took office.
How did Spain and France play a role in Americans moving west?
in 1798, the French erupted in revolution. They asked America for some help and Washington wanted to stay neutral. He issues a Proclamation of Neutrality which prohibited americans from fighting in the war. This proclamation also barred french and british ships form American ports.
The moved west in the search of land and adventure. Pioneers, many of them farmers, traveled over the mountains into Kentucky and Tennessee.
What did Jefferson want to accomplish during his presidency?
What issues challenged James Madison during his presidency?
What did the election of 1800 show about the nature of politics?
During the James Madison presidency, domestic affairs took a backseat to foreign affairs, as would be expected of a nation at war.
It was a lot different from the elections that are today. Instead of campaigning from state to state, they sent letters to towns to get the their votes. The federalists favored John Adams for a second term and Charles Pickney as his vice president. The republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr as his vice president.
- Jefferson wanted "a wise and frugal government" and "the support of the state governments in all their rights."
- He wanted to limit the power of and size of the federal government.
- He believed a large federal government threatened liberty; and individual states could better protect freedom.
How did the Louisiana Purchase open an area of settlement?
When the deal was proposed to America, Thomas Jefferson did not think this was a legal purchase, but the constitution said nothing about the purchase of land, so they bought it. The new territory would provide great farming land to farmers and give the united states control of the Mississippi river, which would protect domestic shipping interests.
How did the United States become involved in a conflict with Tripoli?
- Pirates from Tripoli and other places in North Africa terrorized European ships sailing on the Mediterranean Sea.
- When they asked for more money and Jefferson refused to pay Tripoli declared war on the United States.
-The war ended with the signing of a peace treaty in June 1805.
In what ways was was the United States unprepared for the war with Britain.?
Why were Americans instilled with national pride after the Battle of New Orleans?
Johnny Horton: “Battle of New Orleans” song:

The fighting force was small and ill-prepared. The regular army had fewer than 12,000 soldiers, 5,000 of whom were new recruits. Added to that were the state militias, with between 50,000 and 100,000 poorly trained soldiers. The office that had fought before were to old to fight again.
We fired our guns an' the British kept a'comin'.
There wasn't nigh as many as there was awhile ago.
We fired once more an' they begin to runnin'
Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.

We looked down the river an' we seed the British comin',
There must a'been a hundred of 'em beatin' on the drum.
They stepped so high an' they made their bugles ring,
We stood beside our cotton bales an'didn't say a thing.


Ole Hickory said we could take 'em by surprise,
If we didn't fire our muskets 'til we looked 'em in the eyes.
We held our fire 'til we seed their faces well,
Then we opened up our squirrel guns an' really gave 'em ...well!


Yeah, they ran through the briars an' they ran through the brambles
An' they ran through the bushes where the rabbits couldn't go.
They ran so fast that the hounds couldn't catch 'em
Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.

We fired our cannon 'til the barrel melted down,
So we grabbed an alligator an' we fought another round.
We filled his head with cannon balls an' powdered his behind,
An' when they touched the powder off, the 'gator lost his mind.

Battle of New Orleans
In a short but gruesome battle, hundreds of British soldiers were killed. At the Battle of New Orleans, Americans achieved a decisive victory. Andrew Jackson became a hero whose fame would help him win the presidency in 1828.
2015 Forging a New Country
Chapter 4
Chapter 6
Ch. 8
Other Helpful Notes:
Individual Rights: Basic Freedoms and Liberties
Raigan: 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23 and 27
Kenzie: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 28 & 30
Governments-to Establish and Maintain Order Within a Society
Images of nations with an
established government:
The Constitution
A republic is a government in which the people elect
representatives to vote for them.
Images of nations struggling with violence and the threat of being overthrown:
Alex: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26

Bill of Rights
Amendment 1 Freedoms, Petitions, Assembly
Amendment 2 Right to bear arms
Amendment 3 Quartering of soldiers
Amendment 4 Search and arrest
Amendment 5 Rights in criminal cases
Amendment 6 Right to a fair trial
Amendment 7 Rights in civil cases
Amendment 8 Bail, fines, punishment
Amendment 9 Rights retained by the People
Amendment 10 States' rights
Video of the Separations of Powers
The stars represent the colonies and the stripes represent the original 13 colonies.
Insert an image showing the ‘Red States vs. Blue States’. What is a ‘blue state’ and a ‘red state’? Distinguish the BASIC differences of the two party system of today: Republican vs. Democrat. Be careful of your sources! Cite your resources. Have your classmates take this quiz to see what political affiliation he/she probably belong to.
The red stands for Republican
“Growth and Expansion: 1790-1840”
The Industrial Revolution
(federalist) Patrick Henry's famous quotes is: "give me liberty or give me death."
is the state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one's way of life, behavior, or political views.
Insert an image that represent the Federalist era: 1789-1800'. Show an images of what the United States looked like during this era. Put in Patrick Henry's famous saying about individual rights (liberties). Define what liberty means. You may put in a short video of Patrick Henry saying his famous quote. Show and tell what 'federalism' means. This was established by our Constitution.
growing industrial cities and rivers
What is a major industry?
the aggregate of manufacturing or technically productive enterprises in a particular field, often named after its principal product
Explain the 'Cottage Industries'.
a business or manufacturing activity carried on in a person's home.
How many hours can a 16 year old work on school nights?
The Forging of a New Country...Post Revolutionary War
If an amendment is to be added to the Constitution,it can either be a two-thirds majority vote in both House of Representatives and the Senate.

You may also use the Constitutional Convection by a
of the State Legislature.
They should at least work about eight hours on a school night.

8-40 School day/week: 4-20
After 10 p.m. before school day
In South Dakota
Distinguish a Federalist from a Democrat-Republican. Show and label a Federalist President (John Adams) and a Democrat-Republican President (Thomas Jefferson). What is an anti-federalist? Show an image of a famous one and label.
How did the steam engines affect the economy and environment of the United States?
The Democratic-Republicans supported states’ rights and a strict interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. The Federalists favored a strong central government. An anti-federalist is a diverse group of individuals that was formed to oppose the passage of the new federal constitution.
War of 1812: The Effects...
1. The federalists opposed the war. After the war they were viewed unpatriotic and lost power.
2. American nationalism grew.
3. U.S. was recognized as a world power.
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
The Industrial Revolution was powered by fossil fuels.
It fueled factory furnaces and steam-powered boats and machinery.
Patrick Henry was a famous anti-federalist
Show and describe how did most people live before the Industrial Revolution?

The Characteristics of an Effective Leader.

1) Honesty
2) Ability of Delegate
3) Communication
4) Sence of Humor
5) Confidence
6) Commitment

Senate of majority leader
Speaker of the house
leader of senate
Why Does Conflict Develop?
- Fighting over land
- Differences of religion
- Slavery (human rights)
- Fighting over water and minerals
- Government
Spangle- cover with spangles or other small sparkling objects.
Star-Spangled Banner’ was written during the War of 1812. Insert a video of the background of the ‘Star-Spangled Banner’. What does spangled mean?
People worked in villages and small towns, working the land and relying on the local community to provide for them. People would work at home, making items one at a time, and in the comfort of their own home.

Explain the work conditions during the early industrial revolution. Explain the birth of the child labor laws. Explain today's child labor laws.
Explain the roadways, traveling on rivers, new waterways: canals.
Adding Amendments
What Was the Industrial Revolution?

a government or social order of a new system

When I think of the Industrial Revolution I think of a new making or wanting of a new system.

The first revolution occured and also went into the second one between the years 1840 and 1870
How did new inventions change the Cottage Industries?
With the new inventions being made, employment went down dramatically.

It was much easier for farmers to grow there own cotton.

In 1820 all of the northern states outlawed slavery, But the growth production of cotton was hard for most white southerners to say no to slaves.

New Technologies
New technologies affect how things were made because before all these inventions they had to make due with what they had and do it themselves
A method for products such as raw materials and hard labor used with machinery.
Work Conditions were not always ideal during the early industrial revolution. Child Labor laws were made to keep kids safe and to protect them from people who over-worked them. Today children under 14 cannot be employed.
New England's Industrial Revolution. What four reasons or factors that industrialization took hold in the New England area?

The Industrial Revolution started in Britain, it soon was in the U.S. They first made it to raise peoples standards of living. The people lived in small places and the machines were in the houses. Till the first invention that made an impact, which was the "Steam Engine."
a. Agrarian Revolution
Agriculture moved west along with American settlers. In the South, cotton production rose sharply. The success and spread of cotton created a huge demand for enslaved workers.

b. Geography/geology-Natural Resources: water, natural harbors etc.
Steamboats improved transportation but were limited to major waterways. They built a canal so existing rivers and lakes could connect a much wider area.

c. money (capitalism, capital, investments, elements of free enterprise etc.)
New York, Boston, and Baltimore also grew as centers of commerce and trade.

d. technology-
The machines helped save time and money when making cloth. Inventions such as the water frame and spinning jenny spun thread, and the power loom wove the thread into cloth.

When things are mass- produced there are many of them, there for the prices go down.
How did city life change because of technological changes?
City life changed dramatically because of the new inventions they came up with. They could soon do things they never could have done before. Cotton gin, steam engines, ect.
Cities grew fast because of factory work, they needed workers, they needed customers, and they needed managers.
This was when pollution first became a problem, with all these new factories, and equipment, pollution was in the air.
They had many more people coming in and out of these cities just for there goods.
test question: what the purpose of our government? to keep the people orderly and to provide protection
291/435 votes of representatives and the senate
Revolution- A big change
Each acre costed less than 42 cents
(of a form of government, constitution, etc.) belonging to, or characteristic of a republic
an advocate or supporter of democracy.
Erie Canal
Textiles Industry
Lewis & Clark Expedition
What types of people do the choose for the expedition?
What did they expect when they went?
They were hard working men.

They expected there to be more oceans or rivers than land and mountain ranges.
Kenzie: 3, 6, 9, 12,15, & 18
What difficulties did the Missouri river present to the expedition?
Their rope kept breaking while trying to pull their boats up stream.
harsh weather
bad water conditions
Who are the Teton Sioux?
Describe the first meeting between the Teton and the expedition?
They were demanding tribes and they found them much more aggresive then the other tribes they have come up against.
Why did picking the correct fork in the river matter so much?
What did the Great Falls mean?
Raigan: 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 & 19
Describe the two leaders of the Expedition and what qualities they possessed.
Who is York?
What was Clark making as they moved West? What was Lewis doing?
York was Clark's slave. York had been around since Clark's childhood.
If they go the wrong way, it will just take a much longer time for them to make it to there destination. The Great Falls meant that they were still on the Missouri River.
Clark was making the map while Lewis was discovering new things and storing them.
Who claimed the lands of the west and where?
Spain claimed the south west.

Russia claimed the pacific north-west.

France claimed the Midwest and the North.
What was the goal of the expedition?
To make a map of uncharted territory and to discover new species of animals.
What message did Lewis and Clark have for the Native Americans along the way?
That America purchased their land and they would be awarded for their loss.
Who is Sacajawea? Why did they need her for the expedition
A Native American that was going to guide them. She showed them food that was safe to eat. She save the most important items when the boat crashed
Who does the expedition spend the winter with?
What were the conditions like?
What did Lewis hope to find at the Continental Divide? What did he find instead?
Why are the Nez Perce so important? What was the expedition's opinion of them?
The Mandan; they had 4,000 members. It got to -45 degrees and snowed all day.
The Nez Perce Helped them cross the river. They thought of them as kind.
Why were the Shoshone Indians so important to the expedition?
Once they found out the leader was Sacajawea's brother, the Indians lent them horses so they could cross the mountains.
Describe the crossing of the Bitterroot Mountains
They were all cold, hungry and suffering from fatigue.
What was winter at Ft. Clatsop like for the expedition?
They traded with Indians for sand, berries and roots. It didn't rain 12 days throughout the winter. It was 4 miserable months.
Lewis was only 29 and he asked Clark to come with on the expedition. Lewis was adventurous and Clark was very smart.
Chapter 12 and 13
Raigan: 1, 4, 7, 10,13, 16, 19, 22
According to the Constitution, the House of Representatives chose who? Who did he appoint to the Secretary of State?
The Constitution requires that the House of Representatives select the president when no candidate has won a majority of the electoral vote. With Clay's help the House chose Adams for president. Adams quickly named Clay to be secretary of state.
What were the beliefs of the new Democratic Party?
How about the new National Republicans?
Insert a short video of about the President Adams. What type of President was Adams: Federalist or Democrat-Republican? (Explain why - did he want more federal government or states individual rights? In what ways?)
Democrats wanted to further open government to the people. They argued that ordinary citizens could do most government jobs.
President John Adams was a federalist president because he wanted more states individual rights than federal government rights.
Who won the Election of 1824? Explain mudslinging. Give an example of mudslinging that goes on today: one Republican and one Democratic cartoon?? Many practices are used today in elections that were used in the 1800s: show these by inserting examples of election slogans and buttons, democratic or republican rallies, fundraising dinners etc.
Jackson was a ‘common man’ because from a poor family and was self-made: patriotic, humble, self-reliant that results in prosperity. He wanted to:
a. Expand voting rights: Who could vote now? Who still couldn’t?
b. Making government more democratic: Explain today’s “Spoils System” and the two National Nominating Conventions.
The House chose John Q. Adams as president. Mudslinging are attempts to ruin their opponent's reputation with insults. One prominent example of mudslinging from the 2008 presidential election was Sarah Palin’s comment regarding Barack Obama’s opinion on foreign policy: “Our opponent,” Palin said to Republican supporters, “is someone who sees America, it seems, as being so imperfect, imperfect enough, that he’s palling around with terrorists who would target their own country” (referring to Obama’s past encounters with Bill Ayers).
a. All white men could vote now. The native americans, african-americans, and women still could not vote.
b. the president who wins the election, his supporters have the rights of the "spoils", or replacing current government employees with supporters of the president.
Explain our today’s tariff system. How does it work? Do we place tariffs on Chinese product or other foreign goods? Why or why not?
Tariffs increase the cost of your product to the foreign buyer and may affect your competitiveness in the market. Targeting FTA (Free Trade Agreement) countries is a good market entry strategy because buyers pay less tariff for goods made in the U.S. compared with similar goods from countries without FTAs.
Yes we place tariffs on Chinese products and foreign goods because it needs to equal out the competition; and we also make money off it.
The North wanted tariffs on European goods so they can compete with their prices and people would buy American-made goods. The South didn’t want it as it would cause Europe to stop trading with them and the cost of European goods would be higher for the Southerners.
What is a tariff?
a tariff is a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports
Insert an image depicting the Nullification Act and Force Bill.
Which tribe did he lead?

Seminole means roughly, “runaway”. Show an image of a Seminole and Black Seminole.

Where were they located before being forced to go to the Indian Territory?
trail of tears

Insert a saying by Osceola that pertains to their plight.

Show images that represent the Five Civilized Tribes. They were organized by tribes. They lived on what is known as a reservation. Show images depicting a reservation
The Five Civilized tribes were Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole.
What is the Whig Party? How did it come about? Who were the Whig Party Presidents? What is the Whig Party known as today? Democrats or Republicans. Show a poster about Harrison candidacy against Martin van Buren.
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States of America. Four Presidents of the United States were members of the Whig Party. Today they are known as Democrats.
Jackson was a strong leader and president at the time. He made decisions that the people at the time didn't like or want. He was a villain because, when the people would say bad things about his choices as president, he would try to find a way to get back at the people.
Andrew Jackson
Great Britain, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana.
They wanted to gain access to the Pacific Ocean.
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty or the Purchase of Florida, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain (now Mexico).

Which states were part of the Oregon Country? Why did Americans want to control the Oregon Country? What was the Adams-Onis Treaty?
Juan Ponce de Leon claimed Florida for Spain in 1513. But the French were also interested in the territory, and they built Fort Caroline near the mouth of the St. Johns River 1564.
How did Florida become a state?
Why did it take so long?
Why did the war break out between the U.S and Mexico?
Who was president at the time?
The US wanted their land. So we made up an excuse to steal it. James K. Polk was president at the time.
Describe the California Gold Rush. (San Francisco Forty-Niners)
"The discovery of gold nuggets in the Sacramento Valley in early 1848 sparked the Gold Rush, arguably one of the most significant events to shape American history during the first half of the 19th century. As news spread of the discovery, thousands of prospective gold miners traveled by sea or over land to San Francisco and the surrounding area; by the end of 1849."
Kenzie: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24
andrew jackson
Martin van Buren
Mountain men trapped for a living. Silk hats became more popular so pelts were in less demand. Fur trappers couldn’t earn a living. They moved and became farmers. Show an image of the Oregon Trail.
How did Texas become a state and what took it so long? (Alamo, Lone Star Republic, annex).
On March 2, 1836—four days before the fall of the Alamo—they declared independence from Mexico. Southerners favored Texas annexation, but Northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union. After Polk won, Congress passed a resolution to annex Texas. In 1845 Texas joined the Union.
What was the Bear Flag Republic? What did it become? Show the flag.
The state flag of California is based on the bear flag created during the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846. On June 14, 1846, the Americans declared California independent. They renamed it the Bear Flag Republic. The name came from the flag the rebels had made for their new nation.
Describe the settling of the Mormons. Why did it take time for Utah to become a state?
The founder of the Mormon Church was Joseph Smith. Smith formed a community in New York, but neighbors disapproved of the Mormons' religion and forced them to leave so they settled in Illinois.Utah did not become a state until 1896, after the Mormons officially gave up the practice of polygamy.
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