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Story of the MARC Standard

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Julia Guiterman

on 11 March 2014

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Transcript of Story of the MARC Standard

Facilitates the sharing of information
Existing software established
What is MARC?
History of MARC
Henriette Avram of the Library of Congress developed MARC in the mid-late 1960s
MARC Today
Story of the MARC Standard
What is MARC?

MARC Record
Three components of a MARC record:
Information can be interpreted by a computer
Bibliographic record/archival description
A standard for coding bibliographic information into a computer record
What is MARC?
Data Structure Standard
Coding: numbers, letters, symbols
Can import MARC records into library catalogs or other bibliographic databases
"A formal guideline specifying the elements into which information is to be organized"
Why are standards important?
Greater communication and sharing between institutions
Record Structure
ANSI/NISO Z39.2 and ISO2709
Content Designation
Codes to identify data elements are determined according to the MARC format
Data Content
Defined by Data Content Standards
Rules for field descriptions and search terms
MARC Terminology
MARC Field Designations
0XX Control information, numbers, codes
1XX Main entry
2XX Titles, edition, imprint
3XX Physical description
4XX Series statements
5XX Notes
6XX Subject access entries
7XX Heading linking entries
8XX Other variable fields

(and subfield code with delimiter)
First Indicator
History of MARC
for Archives
National Information Systems Task Force (NISTF) was created to develop a standard for archives
Compiled a data elements dictionary
Used undeveloped fields in MARC for archival description
Strengths & Weaknesses
Future of MARC
Things to consider...
Do you think MARC21 will still exist in 20 years? Why or why not?
Descriptions at any level
Poorly represents hierarchy of collections
Outdated data structure
Isolating within broader technology world
Julia Guiterman and Taylor Johnson
IRLS 540
March 11, 2014
eXtensible Markup Language
+ -
As MARC transitions to another format in the future, do you think that archivists should make the transition along with libraries or do you think that archives should focus their efforts on more archive-specific standards like EAD?
Facilitates the exchange of data
Structures and organizes information to enable it to be transported
Data fields from MARC records are embedded in XML markup language
MARCXML example
A real benefit in being able to communicate archival information -- not only among archivists, but also with the larger world of historical scholarship and research
Used in libraries and archives
Archival presence in online catalogs using MARC
International in scope
Integrates data elements from various MARC formats
Five communications formats: Format for
bibliographic data
, authority data, holdings data, classification data, community information
In archives, EAD serves a similar purpose
Transition to another format will be slow and tedious
Bibliographic Framework Initiative is working on a replacement for MARC
Not going to disappear too soon
Format for manuscripts (1973) was not well accepted by archivists
Late '60s and early '70s formats were developed for different types of materials
USMARC format for Archival and Manuscripts Control (MARC AMC) was developed and made ready for distribution by 1985
Unique to the AMC format:
Eventually integrated into MARC 21 ...
Expanded notes fields
Restricting the applicability of a field to only part of a record or collection
An "actions" field for administrative actions performed to the records
(Fritz & Fritz, 2003; Furrie, 2009)
Library/archive automation systems can read the data
(Hensen, 1997)
(Library of Congress, 2006)
(NISO, 1994)
(SAA, 2014)
(Library of Congress, 2006)
(Furrie, 2009)
(Furrie, 2009)
(Walch, 1994)
(Weber, 1990)
(Hensen, 1997; Weber, 1990)
Tennant, R. (2002). MARC must die.
Library Journal
, 127(17), 26-27.
National Union Catalog of Manuscripts Collections. (2011).
. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/coll/nucmc/about.html
National Union Catalog of Manuscripts Collections. (2011).
Search the OCLC Catalog
. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/coll/nucmc/oclcsearch.html
Hensen, S. L. (1997). ‘NISTF II’ and EAD: The evolution of archival description.
American Archivist, 60
(3), 284-296.
Contessi, A. & Raga, A. G. (2009). The future of MARC: A conversation with Sally H. McCallum.
Biblioteche oggi, 27
(5), 17-20.
Library of Congress. (2006).
MARC Standards: Frequently asked questions
. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/faq.html#maintenance
Radebaugh, J. (2003). MARC goes global – and lite.
American Libraries, 34
, 43-44.
Weber, L. B. (1990). Record Formatting: MARC AMC.
Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 11
(3-4), 117-143.
Society of American Archivists. (2014).
Glossary of archival and records terminology: content standard
. Retrieved from http://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/c/content-standard
National Information Standards Organization. (1994).
Information Interchange Format
. Bethesda, MD: NISO Press. Retrieved from http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/6677/Information%20Interchange%20Format.pdf
Walch, V. I. (Ed.). (1994).
Standards for archival description: A handbook
. Society of American Archivists.
Millar, L. A. (2010).
Archives: Principles and practices
. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
Society of American Archivists. (2014).
Glossary of archival and records terminology: Data structure standard
. Retrieved from http://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data-structure-standard
Andresen, L. (2004). After MARC -- what then?
Library Hi Tech, 22
(1), 40-51.
Fritz, D. A. & Fritz, R. J. (2003).
MARC 21 for everyone: A practical guide
. Chicago, IL: American Library Association
Furrie, B. (2009).
Understanding MARC bibliographic: Machine-readable cataloging
. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/
Library of Congress. (2006). Introduction. In,
MARC 21 format for bibliographic data
. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bdintro.html
(Contessi & Raga, 2009; Library of Congress, 2012)
(Andresen, 2004; Tennant, 2002)
(NUCMC, 2011)
Library of Congress. (2012).
. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml///
(Library of Congress, 2006; Radebaugh, 2003)
Byrne, Deborah J. (1998).
MARC manual: understanding and using MARC records
. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.
(Library of Congress, 2014)
Library of Congress. (2014).
BIBFRAME frequently asked questions
. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/faqs/
(Fritz & Fritz, 2003; Millar, 2010; SAA, 2014; Walch, 1994)
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