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The Progressive Era 1880 - 1920
Transcript of The Progressive Era 1880 - 1920
Upton Sinclair - The Jungle
Who: Roosevelt, Upton Sinclair, Progressives
What Issues: Unregulated sale of food and medicine was revealed in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle documenting the meat processing industry.
Proposed Reforms: Laws to guarantee safety and health of consumers, Meat Inspection Act, 8 hour work day,
Results: Pure Food and Drug Act
“I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach.”
Who: Christians/ Religious
What Issues: Wanted to restore order to society, Alcoholism was a BIG problem for employers and at home.
Reforms: Outlaw the sale and consumption of alcohol, regulate saloons.
Results: Prohibition/ 18th Amendment
Who: Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Issues: Settlement Houses, Temperance Movement,
Women's Suffrage, Women believed that if they had the right to vote, they could help clean up society too!
Reform Proposed: Women & Child Labor, Women's Voting Rights
Results: 19th Amendment, Children's Bureau in the Labor Department
City Manager/ City Commissioner
Who: Governor La Middle Class Workers, Intellectuals, Populists
Issues: Wanted to reduce party politics and power of political bosses and bring more power to the people.
Proposed Reforms: Direct Election of Senators, Direct Primaries, Recall, Initiative and Referendum
Results: 17th Amendment, Municipal Reform/ City-Manager Plan, Interest Groups, Lobby Reform, Primaries, Recall (some states)
Who: W. E. B. Dubouis
Booker T. Washington
Issues: Equal Rights for African Americans
Proposed Reforms: Anti-lynching laws, equal access, government reform
Results: NAACP founded Anti-lynching laws, Guinn v United States
Case of Child Labor
Who: Women, Interest Groups, Labor Unions, Religious Organizations
What Issues: Safety and protection of children in the work place.
Proposed Reforms: Prohibit shipment of goods produced by children across state lines - Keating -Owen Act.
Results: Keating- Owen Act was struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Established a Children's Bureau in the Labor Department.
General Workers' Rights
Who: Factory workers, women workers, Religious, Labor Unions
What Issues: Concern for unsafe working conditions, low-pay
Example: Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Proposed Reforms: Child labor laws, workmen's compensations, "mothers' pensions
Results: States passed laws regarding this (New York, California)
Who: President Teddy Roosevelt, Socialists, Louis Brandeis Progressives, President Woodrow Wilson
What Issues: Break up "bad trusts" or monopolies by using government regulation that would up-hold fair competition.
Reforms: Create government programs to break trusts apart, investigate activities of trusts.
Results: Sherman Antitrust Act, Department of Commerce and Labor, Federal Reserve Act, Clayton Antitrust Act.
"Put down your bucket where you are..." - Booker T. Washington
"Is it possible and probable that 9 millions of men can make effective progress in economic lines if they are deprived of political rights, made a servile caste and allowed only the most meager chance for developing their exceptional men?" - W.E.B. Du Bois
What Issues: Growing immigrant population created social problems.
Reforms: Settlement Houses (help assimilate), Eugenics, Nativism.
Results: Immigration Quotas/ Limits on immigrants from certain countries.