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Geography and Ancient Egypt

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Sam Mandeville

on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of Geography and Ancient Egypt

Geography and Ancient Egypt Big Idea SUMMARY The water, fertile soils, and protected setting of the Nile Valley allowed a great civilization to arise in Egypt around 3200 B.C. NILE = IMPORTANT!

Longest river in world

Flows north

2 Regions:
Upper Egypt: Southern Egypt
Lower Egypt: Northern Egypt

Cataracts: strong rapids - made sailing difficult
Delta: triangle-shaped area of land made of soil deposited by river "Gift of the Nile" c. 12,000 years ago: Hunter-gatherers settled Nile Valley

development of irrigation and canals
surplus of food
wheat, barley, fruits, veggies
cattle and sheep

Natural boundaries = protection from invasion
desert - harsh and hard to cross
Mediterranean Sea
Red Sea
cataracts Civilization Develops! c. 3100 BC: Menes rose to power in Upper Egypt
Goal: unify Upper and Lower Egypt

Menes marries Lower Egypt princess = unification of two kingdoms

Menes was Egypt's first pharaoh: ruler of Egypt
means "great house"

Menes founded Egypt's first dynasty: series of rulers from same family Kings Unify Egypt Civilization in ancient Egypt began in the fertile, protected Nile River Valley. People there formed two kingdoms that were later united under one ruler. Floods of the Nile Floods around same time each year:
Midsummer in Upper Egypt
Fall in Lower Egypt

Rich silt developed on banks of river --> ideal for farming
Red land: desert land
Black land: fertile soil after floods

Without floods, people never could have settled in Egypt Red land Black land Two Kingdoms Protected from invaders, villages of Egypt grew

Strong leaders emerged

By 3200 BC: villages band together into kingdoms-
Lower Egypt
Upper Egypt Menes New capital: Memphis
Political and cultural center of Egypt

First Dynasty lasted c. 200 years
Extended Egyptian territory south along Nile and into S.W. Asia

Rivals took over Egypt and established Second dynasty Homework Section 1 Assessment on page 89

Questions 1 -4

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