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1.1: Chemistry in Living Systems
Transcript of 1.1: Chemistry in Living Systems
Fundamental piece of matter is called an atom
Atoms are made of
Atomic Mass is the number of protons + neutrons
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
Carbon can have 12, 13, 14 neutrons
Radioisotopes are unstable
Molecules are groups of atoms
Organic molecules are carbon-based
can also include H, N, O, P, S
Interactions of Molecules
Bonds that hold atoms together are called intramolecular forces
covalent bonds: electrons are shared between two non-metal elements
can be polar (electronegativity between 0.5 - 1.7)
polar bonds are partially positive and partially negative
non-polar bonds have an even sharing of electrons
Interactions within molecules
Intermolecular forces occur between different molecules
Hydrogen bonding occurs between a positive hydrogen atom and a negative atom, such as oxygen
H-bonds are weak, but very important biologically (water)
Hydrophobic Interactions cause non-polar molecules to clump together, away from water and hydrophilic elements
Interactions between molecules
Ions occur when atoms gain or lose electrons
Atoms losing electrons become positive and are called cations
Atoms gaining electrons become negative and are called anions
Ionic bonds occur when a metal gives one or more electrons to a non-metal.
Groups of atoms that have specific chemical properties
use appropriate terminology related to biochemistry, including, but not limited to: active and passive transport, covalent and ionic bond, allosteric site, substrate, substrate enzyme complex, and inhibition
identify common functional groups within biological molecules
So can you?
Explain what an atom is and describe it's components?
Explain the different intermolecular forces?
Explain the different intramolecular forces?
Describe the different types of bonds and when they occur?
Explain what a functional group is?