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The Industrial Revolution

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Federica Bolognesi

on 27 January 2014

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Transcript of The Industrial Revolution

CONSEQUENCES FOR AGRICULTURE
ENCLOSURES
From XVII to XIX century
Fencing of public lands
Enclosures act
Use of machinery
No Agricultural Revolution
Population starved
No Industrial Revolution
1806
1862
1916
1867
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
1803
Atom of John Dalton


Alessandro Volta
battery
1800
1806
Humpry Davy
Arc Lamp
1835 Henry Talbot: Photography
1851: Isaac Singer
Sewing machine
1862: The machine gun was patented by
Richard Gatling
1866:
-Gregor Mendel: Laws of genetics;
-Alfred Nobel: Dynamite;
1867
Christopher Scholes
the Typewriter
1886
John Pemberton:
1803
1835
1851
1866
1886
1900
1866:
Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis

1900
1916: Albert Einstein, Theory of relativity
When did the revolution start?
Britain was the "Workshop of the World"
AGRICULTURE
Four-course rotation
INDUSTRY
producition of iron
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS
Roads and canals
Great achievement of the revolution
Selective breeding
Texile industry
production of coal
Railway
But, what are enclosures..?
THE INDUSTRY
Arnold Toynbee created the idea that, between 1780 and 1830, there was an Industrial Revolution
Industrial growth
A. H. JOHN
MUSSON and ROBINSON
JOSEPH INIKORI
which provided money for investment in British industry
Britain's trade
stimulated by
W. W. ROSTOW
Traced the growth of output back to capital investment..
..which allowed
expansion
innovation
science
technology

Credited:
Has focused on the profits
made by the slave traders
INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS
TEXTILES
Large factories full of machines
Output  increased 15-fold in the century 1815-1914
IRON AND STEEL
Abraham Darby
Production of 'pig' iron increased 30-fold in the century 1815-1914
smelted iron using coke
Henry Cort
made wrought iron
Gilchrist-Thomas
made steel
Tonybee said...
There was both an agricultural and industrial revolution
John Roebuck's Carron
Instead modern historians think that the economy was active even in
The coal industry employed a million men in 3,000 collieries
Production of coal increased 20-fold in the century 1815-1914
Middle Ages
Early Modern Age
Better coal mining techniques allowed deeper mines
Like...
roof and pillar
to provide ventilation
to help prevent gas explosions
the Davy lamp
And..
STEAM POWER
James Watt made steam engines much more efficient giving huge savings on fuel
By 1900 London had 4,5 milion inhabitants
other important towns:
Glosgow
Liverpol
Birmingham
Thomas Newcomen built the first commercially successful steam engine to pump water out of mines
CONSEQUENCE FOR INDUSTRY
Historians have claimed:
the rate of economic growth
Britain industrialisation
Some sectors of the economy grew
The difference of the England between 1751-1851
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION...
There was a dramatic progress in trsport !!
innovation
capital investment
increased extent
ROADS
THOMAS TELFORD
JOHN MACADAM
Thomas Teleford (agust 9th 1757 – september 2nd 1834) in 1820 became the first president of institution of Civil Engineers in England. Between 1803 and 1821 he built alone 1000miles of road, including 1000 bridge
They developed better roads , drainage and a smooth surface
John Macadam (Ayr, september 21st 1756 – Moffat, november 26th 1836) was a Scottish engineers who invented the street flooring system actually known with his own name.
TURNPIKE TRUSTS
After 1750 Turnpike Trust were set up to improve main road
The investiment in Britain's road was more than £3 milion a year
CANALS
BOOM IN THE CANAL BUILDING
For this canal-building20 milions was invested
The canal network covered 4000 miles
England became a great trading nation
The growth of population and towns
From agriculture to industry
From domestic industry to factory work
New type of energy
Revolution in transport and communications
The main changes of the Industrial Revolution
RAILWAYS
LONDON UNDERGROUND 1863
GEORGE STEPHENSON'S ROCKET
STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON RAILWAY
THE FORTH BRIDGE 1890
£3 billion was spent building the railways and... In 1870 423 million passengers travelled on 1600 miles of line.
SAMUEL MORSE
He invented..
THE TELEGRAPH
1837
ROWLAND HILL
He invented..
1837
THE POSTAGE STAMP
KIRKPATRICK MACMILLAN
He invented..
1839
BICYCLE
ISAMBARD KINGDOM BRUNEL
He invented..
1843
THE STEAMSHIP
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
He patented..
THE TELEPHONE
1876
KARL BENZ
He ivented..
1885
THE MOTOR CAR
TIMELINE OF EVENTS
CONSEQUENCES FOR TRANSPORT AND COMUNICATION
ECONOMIC GROWTH
THE 1844 RAILWAY REGULATION ACT IMPROVED CONDITION IN THIRD-CLASS
THE GROWTH OF THE SHIPPING INDUSTRY ALLOWED A ENORMOUS GROWTH IN WORLDWIDE TRADE
THE WORLD SHRANK
LONDON
TO..
FROM
MANCHESTER
In 1700 it took 4 days to get
Now only 4 hours!
In 1847 more than a quarter of a million people worked in railways
their wages helped the economy grow
so.
.
In 1883 Cheap Trains Act offered a greater number of cheap trains for workers
transport became available
SPEEDIER TRAVELS AND RAILWAY TIMETABLES NEEDED THE WHOLE COUNTRY
Before people used local time that varied from place to place
BRITISH EMPIRE
By 1902 it was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, called..
"ALL RED LINE"
Farm workers
1960
1961
1987
1969
TOYNBEE
CAUSES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1884
Growth stimulated by the Agricultural Revolution
1764
1779
1785
James Hargreaves' Spinning Jenny
Richard Arkwright's Water Frame
Samuel Crompton's Mule
Edmund Cartwright's Power Loom
MACHINERY
1769
Richard Crawshay 's Cyfartha
In 1914
COAL
EDUCATION
mechanics institutes: night-school education
public
libraries
1750- 1830
AGRICULTURAL
REVOLUTION
Townshend: "TURNIP" four-course rotation
Arnold
Toynbee
Bakewell: SELECTIVE BREEDING
Coke of Holkham: SHEEP SHEARINGS
Parlamentary Enclosure Movement
Arthur Young: NEW METHODS
1700-1850
critical period : use of fodder crops
to keep more animals
SCHOOLS
1833: FACTORY ACT
1844: RAGGED SCHOOL UNION
1868: PUBLIC SCHOOL ACT
Harrow School
Eton School
universities
1900-1909
AND
1870: Foster's Act -primary education
1880: Education Act, attendance for children up to the age of 10
1902: Education Act, Secondary schools
William Edward Foster
AGRICULTURE
more meat for markets
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Bolognesi, Ferri, Filosa, Gao
The end
Manchester
Full transcript