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Peter the Great Euro
Transcript of Peter the Great Euro
Attempted to "westernize" and "modernize" Russia, especially by establishing St. Petersburg, showing his German influence
Made education an important component of life, setting up schools around the country, including a School of Medicine in Moscow
Created the Russian Academy of Sciences and the building that contained it
Created the first Russian newspaper and ordered a printing press to allow for printing of books and other written items
Peter the Great
Centralize Authority Around Oneself
Peter the Great was considered to be an absolutist ruler of his time, this is only in broadest sense of the term. Peter dealt with the Russian government in an autocratic fashion, believing that every decision should go through him. Despite his desire for reform in the government, few improvements were made.
Make More Money
With new demands put upon Peter's army due to Charles XII more money was needed. He instituted higher taxes to accommodate this, as well supporting budding industry and inviting foreign merchants to establish industry in Russia. This work encouraged industry to grow, as new establishments often received large financial backing (the state gained complete control over industry through this). With this though, wages were lowered and serfdom was stretched from agriculture into industry. Peter had put in place a poll tax to increase trade. However, these taxes were often placed on silly things such as beards and garb and angered the population, who subsequently evaded taxation. This in turn led to the debasement of Russia's currency and inflation.
St. Petersburg had also become a major seaport, which opened Russia to new trade from other countries. He improved Russia's economy with his mercantile practices and reforms. His military ventures also crossed into his economic success, as when his naval army crushed Sweden's fleet at Hango, giving Russia access to influential trade ports.
Make More War
Soldiers wore German outfits to emulate strength of German soldiers
Waged war with Sweden in alliance with Denmark and Poland to take control of the Baltic Sea. The Great Northern War, as it was called, lasted from 1700 to 1721.
He required all nobles to serve in the army or civil administration for a lifetime, as well as creating a standing army of peasants and bringing in Cossacks and mercenaries.
These armies were able to defeat Sweden in 1709 and completely win the Northern War and gain control of Latvia and Estonia in 1721.
Pacify and Subjugate Your Nobles
Through a series of reforms, Peter the Great made laws that made his nobles (especially boyars) aware that they were under his control, but did not anger them. In this way, he successfully subjugated them without making them want to rebel.
The Decree on Western Dress (1701) stated that Russians must dress like Prussians, in this way Peter stated that he could even regulate how his people could dress, further subjugating them.
Through the Decree on Promotion to Officer's Rank in 1714 Peter the Great further limited the power of the nobles by forcing the army to be led by those with experience rather than those with money and the right connections. This both improved the Russian army and forced a balance of power within its ranks.
Peter the Great taxed Boyars heavily, and demanded that all nobles enter either the military or the civil service. This made them very aware of his power, and took away some of theirs by taking these taxes. In this way he instilled meritocracy to a certain extent.
In 1722 Peter the Great made the Table of Ranks, a table that laid out the social hierarchy in Russia and how each class should be addressed, drawing hard lines between the classes, ensuring that everyone knew their place and how much power they had.
Peter the Great still pacified his nobles when he issued the Statute for the College of Manufactures in 1723, allowing them to open factories and own serfs to operate them. This was for Peter's goal of the industrialization and westernization of Russia, but also contributed to the success of the nobles, making them happier than if they had been completely subjugated. Owning these factories would contribute to their wealth.
Jillian Frechette, Jared Fong, Emily Miller, Yasmine Vera, Cassandra Xavier
Peter the Great was born in 1672 and died in 1725. He ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, but from 1682-1696 he was a co-tsar with his half brother and sister.
He was the heir to the Romanov and was determined to continue expanding tsarist Russia.
Through a long series of reforms, he tried to westernize Russia, and traveled around Europe in the Grand Embassy to learn more about their culture and use this information to improve Russia.
Build Something Worthy of Your Glory
After his victory during the Great Northern War, Peter I founded St. Petersburg as the new capital of Russia. Originally, it was a Swedish city called Nyenskans, and was rebuilt by Peter with the services of tens of thousands of unpaid serfs, many of which died in the process. Later, buildings such as the Peter and Paul Cathedral and the Bronze Horseman (a statue of Peter) were erected, though after Peter's reign. St. Petersburg would be the capital of Russia until the reign of Peter II, and then again for 186 after 1732.
Make Religion Work for You
During his reign, Peter made the church much less powerful that it was before, eventually forcing it to become part of the government. The primary reason for Peter's subordination of the church was that it was semi-autonomous, and in order to be an absolute ruler, Peter had to be the sole leader of every institution. Peter also wanted the church's wealth and viewed its refusal to modernize and possession of land and serfs as a challenge to his power. Peter established his control of the church by making it a division of the government under the direction of a department called the Monastyrskii Prikaz. Later the church was fully integrated into the government and Peter ensured two functions of the church: to work for the state and to convince the faithful that Peter was just short of God-like.
Peter I wanted all decisions to go through him, creating a very inefficient government. This methodology did force all things to be centered around him and create a more suppressed and loyal force to surround himself.
He also accomplished this by subjugating the Boyars, the Russian nobility; suppressing many rebellions.
Sharing the Rule
When Peter began his rule he was forced to rule with the Streltsys. He and Ivan were too young so their sister became their regent.
She was highly influenced by her lover, Prince Golitsin. Peter would later overthrow Prince Golitsin, giving him "absolute" rule over Russia
Peter did rule alongside Ivan, but Ivan played little to no part in the government.