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DEFINITION OF THE WORD AND LEXEME AND ITS RELATION, LEXICAL

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Ivana Škárová

on 30 October 2013

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Transcript of DEFINITION OF THE WORD AND LEXEME AND ITS RELATION, LEXICAL

DEFINITION OF THE WORD:
LEXICAL UNIT:
lexical unit (lexical item) - a single word or chain of words that forms the basic elements of language 's lexicon (vocabulary)
single meaning, but not always single words
sometimes lexical units with more than a single word are called lexical chunks
examples:
cat, traffic light, take care of , pissed off
sometimes a distinction is made between a lexeme and a lexical unit
lexical unit - the union of a lexical form and a single sense
lexeme - a family of lexical units
DEFINITION OF LEXEME:
lexeme (lexical item) - the fundamental unit of the lexicon of a language
a unit which may consist of one or more (orthographic) words:
simple - containing a single word: give, red, reader
complex - a multi-word expression such as: give up, red tape, kick the bucket
lemma (citation form) - the canonical form of a word that is typically used in paper dictionaries
lexicon - the collection of words (the internalized dictionary), that every speaker of the language has
DEFINITION OF THE WORD AND LEXEME AND ITS RELATION, LEXICAL UNIT, ICON, SIGN AND SYMBOL
the definition of a word is one of the most difficult tasks in linguistic
Word is a combination of sounds (rarely a single sound), or its representation in writing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning. It is no divisible into smaller units of independent use, although linguists would analyze it further into morphemes. (J. Peprník)
morpheme - the smallest unit of LINGUISTIC meaning
conclusion: a particular string of sounds e.g. (m-o-r-p-h-e-m-e) must be united with meaning, and meaning must be united with specific sounds in order for the sounds or the meaning to be a WORD
lexeme has a correlation with words:
the words find, finds, founding, and found are forms of the lexeme FIND
the words sleep, sleeps, sleeping and slept are forms of the lexeme SLEEP
conclusion:
the lexemes FIND and SLEEP are contained in the lexicon
the various forms which are derived from the lexemes FIND and SLEEP are called words
DEFINITION OF SIGN, SYMBOL AND ICON
something that stands for something else or something that conveys meaning
linguistic sign - the term used by Ferdinand de Saussure
according to him, language is made up of signs and every sigh has two sides
the signifier, i.e. the form
the signified, i.e. the meaning
there are several categories of of sign which differ in
the degree of arbitrariness:
1. operational sign - completely arbitrary, e.g. mathematical symbols +/-
2. symptom - between the symptom and reality is a casual relation, e.g. s cloud is a symptom of rain
3. symbol - a partly arbitrary sign accepted by society, there is no casual relation between symbol and reality
4. signal - is more arbitrary than symbol, e.g. traffic signals - red/amber/ green
5. iconic sign - is based on the principle of similitude, is not arbitrary
examples: a portrait,
a landscape painting
6. language sign - arbitrary, conventional
linguistic signs are arbitrary insofar as there is no direct link between the form and the meaning of a sign
there are systematic exceptions to the principle of the arbitrariness of the sign, e.g onomatopoetic words, icons
signs with an arbitrary association of form and meanings are called symbols
THE ARBITRARINESS OF LINGUISTIC SIGN
ICONOCITY
analogy between the form of a sign and its meaning, as opposed to arbitrariness
CONSTRUCTIONAL - express a larger amount or number by a larger (longer) form, e.g. book-books
QUANTITATIVE - lengthening of words to indicate a greater degree, such as 'looooong'
SOUND SYMBOLISM
the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves
particular sound, such as (fl) as in fly, flee, flow
fl- an element indicating smooth movement
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