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GMO Foods

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by

Isaiah Waldner

on 2 June 2015

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Transcript of GMO Foods

a single inept gene.
Introduced in 1996, BT corn was designed to kill off predators. However, scientists predicted that these would eventually evolve to withstand the BT toxins.
French cour finds US corporation Monsanto legally responsible for poisoning French farmer Paul Francois.
In 2004 Francois inspected a sprayer containing Lasso, banned in France in 2007, and calimed that he suffered from dizziness, headaches and other problems after
inhaling
the powerful herbicide. Lasso was directly linked to his illnesses when chlorobenzene was found in his body.
million
a c r e s
GMO
A genetically modified organism is flora, fauna or any microorganism whose DNA code has altered by adding from another species DNA code or subtracting from its own in order to give it characteristics that it does not usually have.
it is an , meaning new advancements and innovations are still being made
emerging technology
But should it be
Used?
w h e r e d o y o u d r a w t h e l i n e ?
is it justifiable to modify crops to withstand
W
E
E
D
S
DROUGHT
P
S
E
T
S
or
give plants the ability to
F
G
I
H
T
Diseases
Deficiencies
Disorders
and
+
+
N
U
T
i
R
T
i
N
YES
it is strongly justifiable
B
U
T
.
.
.

?
is it safe to implement this into our
food
and into
nature
?

do scientists know enough about GM's potential
long term effect
?
a
L
V
O
a
l
u
e
should we continue to
GENETICALLY
MODIFY
ORGANISMS
G
O
M
1973
Stanford University Medical School - Biochemists
Herbert Boyer
and
Stephen Cohen
successfully cut a bacteria plasmid and insert foreign DNA
P
S
E
T
S
w h e r e d o y o u d r a w t h e l i n e?
1974
1st transgenic mammal - biologist Rudolf Jaenisch of MIT creates
1st

GM mammal
by injecting retrovirus DNA into a mouse embryo
organism with artificially introduced genetic material
1975
A
a
m
o
l
i
s
r
c o n f e r e n c e
Paul Berg
noble
prize
14
0
bioloists
lawyers
physicians
organized by
it was an infuential conference to draw voluntary
guidelines
on recombinent DNA technology to ensure safe practices.
1980
on GMO, also the
1st patent
on a living organism, the patent was filed by General Electric
(GE 5-4 US Patent Office)
for a bacterium that consumes crude oil
1982
Paul Berg
noble
prize
14
0
bioloists
lawyers
physicians
organized by
it was an infuential conference to draw voluntary
guidelines
on recombinent DNA technology to ensure safe practices.
becomes the first genetically engineered drug approved by the
FDA
(US Food and Drug Administration)
HUMULIN
human insulin procuded
by recombinent
E.Coli
bacteria
1
Patent
1986
1st genetially modified
plant
antibiotic-resistant
tobacco plant
Belgium
1st field test of
GM
plants
1994
GMO hits the
Shelf
FDA approves
Flavr Savr
tomato for sale
delayed-ripening tomato has longer shelf life than conventional tomatoes
high and bland taste
eventually led to its downfall
$$
1992
foods are
not
made
d
n
g
r
e
a
s
u
o
require special
t
e
s
t
i
n
g
regulations
FDA
and don't
or specific
GE foods
GE food = food product

whole food
1996
Super weeds up to 7-11
x
more resistant to glyphosate are discovered in Australia
herbicide discovered by Monsanto in 1970 and commercialized under the name
Roundup
these superweeds' resistance to herbicides are a result of
pollination
with a genetically modified plant designed to resist herbicides
1999
g e n e t i c a l l y e n g i n e e r e d
P L A N T S
1
0
0
major food chains in England including
McDonalds
and
Burger

King
announce there intention to avoid GMO ingredients
2003
glofish
fluerescent fish is introduced in USA
so far there have been no reports of ecological concerns
Helicoverpa zea type of moth
discovered
f
easting o
n

B
T cotto
n
i
t took less th
an
a decade fo
r
t
he moth to be
co
me resistant t
o

g
enetically engine
er
ed toxin produce
d
b
y the modife
d.
p
lants. What'l
l
happen
next?
2007
Scottish scientist create breed of GM hens that can
produce
eggs containing cancer-fighting medicinal proteins.
The hens have human genes in DNA so human genes are secreted into eggs and can be easily separated after consumption.
Ultimately, this
works
with a wider variety of diseases.
2010
so far there have been no reports of ecological concerns
The European Food Safety Authority concludes that GM plants
do not
post a relevant risk to human or animal health or to the environment.
A M F L O R A
GM potato approved for industrial applications in EU. This potato has special starch properties used in paper making and adhesives.
F D A
receives application for genetically modified fish labelled for human consumption. They determine more research needed for animals labelled for human consumption.
2012
Paul Francois
Monsanto
vs
History
common knowledge dictates that you should not inhale chemicals... so why was Monsanto held responsible?
"We are disappointed by the court's decision."
-Yann Fichet, Monsanto France
2011
research in Quebec shows evidence that BT-toxins present in blood of
pregnant
women are passed on to
unborn
children
2013
worldwide crops are GMO
1
7
1
.

%
USA
93% soybeans
90% feed corn
90% cotton
2014
168 million acres
68 million hectares
~50% total land area
Now, scientists discover that the corn rootworm has effectically evolved against
Bacillus Thuringiensis
. Scientists speculate that farmers that refused to plant their crops half BT corn and half conventional corn are largely to blame.
T i m e l i n e
DNA
Is the self-replicating material present in all living organisms.
∞√
∞√


this DNA stores the organisms'
specific
and
unique traits
, such as drought resistance and it's smell.
if scientists know where these
genes
are located in a specific organism, they can
transfer traits
between organisms.
It is the carrier of all genetic information.
Scientist identify the gene of interest
1
st
}
herbicide resistance
cold tolerence
low water requirements
D
A
these special enzymes have the ability to cut DNA at a specific base sequence. D
N
2
nd
isolate the gene
using a
restriction enzyme
A
D
this enzyme has the unique ability to cut DNA at or near a specific sequence of bases
3
rd
now the extracted gene can be slightly modified or tweaked using multiple methods to have a more desirable trait.
4
th
D
A
these special enzymes have the ability to cut DNA at a specific base sequence. D
N
A
D
this enzyme has the unique ability to cut DNA at or near a specific sequence of bases
using Agrobacterium pathogen by inserting foreign DNA into it and releasing bacteria to future GM
T-DNA is tumor-inducing gene which scientists disarm
D
A
these special enzymes have the ability to cut DNA at a specific base sequence. D
N
A
D
this enzyme has the unique ability to cut DNA at or near a specific sequence of bases
fires gold particles carrying foreign DNA into plant cells. Some of these particles pass through cell walls where transgene merges with the plant chromosomes
'Gene Gun'
D
A
these special enzymes have the ability to cut DNA at a specific base sequence. D
N
A
D
this enzyme has the unique ability to cut DNA at or near a specific sequence of bases
testing has to be done to make sure that the recipient of
foreign DNA
accepted it and has not killed it
th
D
A
these special enzymes have the ability to cut DNA at a specific base sequence. D
N
A
D
this enzyme has the unique ability to cut DNA at or near a specific sequence of bases
if the plant cells accept the foreign DNA, it's fully integrated and in time by duplicating itself the plant adopts the foreign characteristics
5
D
A
these special enzymes have the ability to cut DNA at a specific base sequence. D
N
A
D
this enzyme has the unique ability to cut DNA at or near a specific sequence of bases
this technology has tremendous potential
Imagine
scientists can alter plants to give them any desired traits. If you think about it, GMO can be a
world-changing
technology
so change it.
that,
More
is the logic behind
GMO
Less
or
of course, as with all techs and sciences, there are the
opponents
In January 2014
General Mills
announced they would make their original Cheerios GMO-free. The only genetically modified ingredient was corn starch and sugar beet.
this resulted in lower levels of
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
25%
2%
Daily Value
Post Foods
also made its Grape Nuts GMO-free.
This resulted in the cereal losing all its amounts of Vitamin A, Vitamin B2, and Vitamin D.
what if the critics got their wish?
what would a
GMO-free
world look like?
Agricultural Drawback
The effect on our agricultural system might not be as huge as pro-GMO activists might like to think, but there are some moderate changes that would come to be.
yield gains over last 20 years nullified
more insecticide use, and most farmers would have to turn to alternatives to Roundup
farmers would have to plow more, which indirectly effects the envirnment due to increased emmisions and fossil fuel usage
What most critics overlook, is that going GMO-free would be severely devastating, even to them. The ripples from the financial earthquake would be felt by the richest to the poorest of citizens; however, guess who suffers the most?
The most widespread use of GMO? Food for livestock.
The beauty about GMO is that producing it is much cheaper and more effecient than producing conventional grains. There is no doubt that the cost of animal feed would skyrocket. That would not go unanswered; the price of meats and dairies would also hit the moon.
Economic Disaster
Golden
Rice
modified version of rice that produces Vitamin A in its edible parts
staple diet of hundreds of millions of poor people..
Vitamin A Deficiency
kills ~670000 children under the age of 5 each year, and causes hundreds of thousands others to go blind
Research has also shown that the beta carotene produced in rice is effectively converted into Vitamin A in humans.
- forms Vitamin A
beta carotene
Why let that go?
- forms Vitamin A
beta carotene
GMO
Phobia
The anti-GMO club has a huge following. However, on what grounds are their claims made?
Very little, if not none. In 2012-2013 a team of Italian scientists calalogued and alalyzed 1783 studies about the safety and environmental concerns of GMO. They couldn't find a single credible example showing that GM foods are unsafe to humans or animals.
Other holes in the anti-GMO scheme are the facts on which they lie. None of those claims have been scientifically proven through proper scientific research and studies.
Another problem are the results. A huge claim made my anti-GMO activists lies within the tumor rate of rats. However, it is a well known fact that rats are susceptible to cancer and tumors, and particularly vulnerable are Sprague-Dawley rats, used by the infamous Seralini Study.
the
why not try to make a better place?

the future for GMO seems bright, even though its the conglomerates like Monsanto that make the money, we can surely benefit from it
GMO provides us opportunities such as to
improve nutritional values of our foods
provide vaccines through food
use bacteria to treat haemophilia and produce insulin
gene therapy - deliver genes to cure diseases such as sickle cell in humans (new but showing promising results)
malaria resistant mosquitoes - they breed and pass on malaria immunity
Why not?
Method 1
Method 2
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