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Rizal's First Homecoming

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brian katada

on 4 May 2014

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Transcript of Rizal's First Homecoming

Rizal and Taviel de Andrade
Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade and Rizal's friendship bloomed beautifully.
They were both young, educated and cultured, made walking tours of the verdant countrysides, discussed topics of common interest, and enjoyed fencing, shooting, hunting and painting.
Calamba's Agrarian Trouble
Influenced by certain facts in Noli Me Tangere, Governor General Terrero ordered government investigations of the friar estates to remedy whatever iniquities might have been present in connection with land taxes and with tenant relations.
Farewell to Calamba
Attackers of the Noli
It was a virulent war of words. Father Font printed his report and distributed copies of it in order to discredit the controversial novel.
Defenders of the Noli
had its gallant defenders who fearlessly came out to prove the merits of the novel or to refute the arguements of the unkind attackers.
First Homecoming 1887-88
Cuestiones de Sumo Interes
Porque no los he de leer?
(Why Should I not Read Them?)
Rev. Vicente Garcia
, a Filipino Catholic priest-scholar, a theologian of the Manila Cathedral, and a Tagalog translator of the Famous Imitation of Christ by Thomas Kempis, defended the Noli.
Infuriated, the friars exerted pressure on Malacañang Palace to eliminate Rizal.
Decision to return home
to operate his mother's eyes;
to serve his people who had long been oppressed by spanish tyrants;
Decision to return home
to find out for himself how Noli and his other writings were affecting Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines;
and to inquire why Leonor Rivera remained silent.
to identify why Rizal decided to come home to Calamba;
to identify the hardships Rizal experience during his stay in the Philippines;
to identify who hated and defended his novel, Noli Me Tangere;
to learn about Rizal's finding regarding the Calamba's Agrarian Trouble
to determine the reason why Rizal had to leave the country again.
Rizal left Rome by train for Marseilles.
On July 3, 1887 he boarded the steamer,
, the same steamer which brought him in Europe five years ago.
Delightful Trip to Manila
Suez Canal
On July 30, he transferred to another steamer,
, which was Manila-bound.
On August 2, the steamer left Saigon for Manila.
Arrival in Manila
On the midnight of August 5, the
arrived in Manila.
Happy Homecoming
On August 8,
he returned to Calamba.
Rizal established a medical Clinic in Calamba.
Rizal opened a gymnasium for young folks, where he introduced European sports such as gymnastics, fencing and shooting so as to discourage cockfighting and gambling.
Rizal suffered one failure during his six months of stay in Calamba - his failure to see Leonor Rivera.
Storm over the Noli
a few weeks after his arrival,
a storm broke over his novel.

One day, Rizal received a letter
Governor General Emilio
requesting him to come to Malacañang Palace.
Jose Rizal secured a copy of

for the Governor General.

Governor General Terrero, who was a liberal-minded Spaniard, knew that Rizal's life would be in jeopardy because the friars were powerful.
Terrero assigned a young Spaniard,
Don Jose Taviel de Andrade
, as Rizal's bodyguard.
The Archbishop of Manila,
Msgr. Pedro Payo
, sent a copy of Noli to
Father Rector Gregorio Echevarria
of the University of Santo Tomas for examination by a comittee of the faculty, which was composed of Dominican professors.
The report of the faculty members stated that
was "
heretical, impious, and scandalous in the religious order, and anti-patriotic, subversive of public order, unjurious to the government of Spain and its function in the Philippine Islands in the political order
Dissatisfied, Governor General Terrero sent the novel to the Permanent Commision of Censorship which was composed of priests and laymen.
The reports of the commission was drafted by its head,
Fr. Salvador Font
, Augustinian cura of Tondo, and submitted to the governor general on December 29.
It found the novel to contain subversive ideas against the church and Spain, and recommended "
that the importation, reproduction, and circulation of this pernicious book in the islands be absolutely be prohibitted
The banning of te Noli only served to make it popular. Everybody wanted to read it. What the hated Spanish masters did not like, the oppressed masses liked very much.
Despite the government prohibition and the vigilance of the cruel Guardia Civil, many Filipinos were able to get a hold of copies of the Noli which they read at night behind closed doors.
There were no mass imprisonments and mass executions thanks tho Governor General Terrero.
He refused to be intimidated by the friars who clamored for harsh measures against people caught reading the novel and its author
Another Augustinian,
Fr. Jose Rodriguez
, published a series of eight pamphlets under the general heading
Cuestiones de Sumo Interes
to blast the
and other anti-Spanish writings
Guardaos de ellos. Porque?
(Beware of Them. Why?)
Y que me dice usted de la peste?
(And What Can You Tell Me of Plague?)
Porque triunfan los impios?
(Why Do the Impious Triumph?)
Cree usted que de veras no hay purgatorio?
(Do You Think There Is Really no Purgatory?)
Hay o no hay infierno?
(Is There or Is There No Hell?)
Que le parece a usted de esos libelos?
(What Do You Think of These Libels?)
Confesion o condenacion?
(Confession or Damnation?)
Copies of these anti-Rizal pamphlets were sold daily in
the churches after Mass. Many Filipinos were forced to purchase them in order not to displease the friars.
It was fiercely attacked by the Spanish Cortes by various senators, particularly
General Jose de Salamanca
on April 1, 1888,
General Luis M. de Pando
on April 12, and
Sr. Fernando Vida
on June 11.
The Spanish Academician of Madrid,
Vicente Barrantes
, who formerly occupied high government positions in the Philippines, bitterly criticized the Noli in an article published in La Espana Moderna in January, 1890.
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Mariano Ponce
and other Filipino reformists in foreign lands rushed to uphold the truths of the
Father Sanchez
, Rizal's favorite teacher in Ateneo, defended and praised it in public.
Don Segismundo Moret
, former Minister of the Crown;
Dr. Miguel Morayta
, historian and statesman; and
Professor Blumentritt
, scholar and educator, read and liked the novel.
Under the penname Justo
Desiderio Magalang
, wrote a defense of the
which was published in Singapore as an appendix to a pamphlet dated July 18, 1888.
He blasted the arguements of Fr. Rodriguez as follows:
Rizal cannot be an "ignorant man", as Fr. Rodriguez alleged, because he was a graduate of Spanish universities and was a recipient of scholastic honors.
Rizal does not attack the Church and Spain, as Fr. Rodriguez claimed, because what Rizal attacked in the Noli were the bad Spanish officials an not Spain, and the bad and corrupt friars and not the Church.
Father Rodriguez said that those who read the Noli commit a mortal sin; since he (Rodriguez) had read the novel, therefore he also commits a mortal sin.
Rizal defended his novel against Barrantes' attack in a letter in Brussels, Belgium, in February, 1880.
In his letter, he exposed Barrantes' ignorance of Philippine affairs and mental dishonesty which is unworthy of of an academician.
Rizal defended his novel against Barrantes' attack in a letter in Brussels, Belgium, in February, 1880.
When the Noli was the target of a heated controversy between the friars and the friends of Rizal, all the copies were sold out and the price per copy soared to an unprecedented level.
According to Rizal, in a letter to Fernando Canon from Guevarra on June 13, 1887, the price per copy was five pesetas, but the price later rose to fifty pesos per copy.
what marred Rizal's happy days in Calamba with Lt. Adrade were:
the death of his older sister, Olympia
and the groundless tales circulated by his enemies that he was "a German spy, an agent of Bismarck, a protestant, a Mason, a witch, a soul beyond salvation, and etc".
One of the friar estates affected was the Calamba Hacienda which the Dominican Order owned since 1883.

In compliance with the governor general's orders, the Civil Governor of Laguna Province directed the municipal authories of Calamba to investigate the agrarian conditions of their locality.
The Calamban folks solicited for Rizal's in gathering facts and listing grievances against the hacienda management. After a thorough study of the conditions in Calamba, Rizal wrote down his findings which the tenants and three of the officials of the hacienda singned on January 8, 1888. Rizal's findings were:
The hacienda of the Dominican Order comprised not only the lands around Calamba, but also the town of Calamba.
The profits of the Dominican Order continually increased because of the arbitrary increase of the rentals paid by the tenants.
The hacienda owner never contributed a single centavo for the celebration of the town fiesta, for the education of the children, and for the improvement of agriculture.
Tenants who had spent much labor in clearing the lands were dispossessed of said lands for flimsy reasons.
High rates of interest were charged the tenants for delayed payment of rentals, and when the rentals could not be paid, the hacienda management confiscated their carabaos, tools, and homes.
They asked Governor General Terrero to deport him, but the latter refused because there were no valid allegations againts Rizal.
Rizal's family, relatives and friends advised him to go away, for his life was in danger.
A valiant hero that the was, he was not afraid of any man and neither was he afraid to die. He was compelled to leave Calamba for two reasons:
his presence in Calamba was jeopardizing the safety and happiness of his family and friends.
he could fight better his enemies and serve his country's cause with greater efficacy by writing the foreign countries.
A Poem for Lipa
Before Rizal left Calamba in 1888, his friend from Lipa requested him to write a poem in commemoration on the town's elevation to a villa by virtue of the Becerra Law of 1888. This was the "
Himno Al Trabaho
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