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History of Christianity

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Thomas Humphries

on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of History of Christianity

Jesus
Apostolic Age
Patristic Era
Medieval
Modern
Contemporary
0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000
Jerusalem
Nicaea I (325)
Constantinople I (381)
Ephesus (431)
Chalcedon (451)
Constantinople II (553)
Constantinople III (680-681)
Nicaea II (787)
Constantinople IV (869)
Schism (1054)
Lateran I (1123)
Lateran II (1139)
Lateran III (1179)
Lyons I (1245)
Lyons II (1274)
Basil-Ferrara-Florence (1431-1439)
St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
St. Dominic (1170-1221)
St. Francis of Assisi (c1181-1226)
Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
Peter Lombard (1095-1160)
Scholasticism
Monastic Reform
St. Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274)
Mohammed (570-610)
St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
St. Gregory the Great (c540-604)
Nestorius (c386-c451)
St. Leo the Great (c400-461)
St. Cyril (c 376-444)
Julius Caesar (d 44 BC)
St. Paul's Journeys and Letters (c35-c50)
Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Luke & Acts
Gospel of Mark
Gospel of John & Letters (c90-103)
Octavian is named "Augustus" (27 BC)
Valentinus and Gnosticism (fl. 140-160)
St. Justin Martyr (fl. 150-165)
Tertullian (fl. 190-220)
St. Basil the Great (330-c379)
St. Gregory of Nyssa (d. c394)
St. Gregory of Nazianzus (329-c391)
The Cappadocian Fathers
The Cappadocian Fathers
Virgin and Christ in the Catacombs
Thomas the Apostle, painting by Caravaggio (c 1602)
Origen (185-254)
Charles "the Hammer" Martel
defeats Muslim advance at Tours (732)
Charlemagne crowned by
Pope Leo II (800)
Dante writes (1307-1321)
"Divine Comedy"
St. Bonaventure (1221-1274)
St. Anselm (c1033-1109)
St. Benedict of Nursia (c480-547)
St. Athanasius of Alexandria (c297-373)
Arius (c250-336)
St. John Cassian (c350-c435)
icons were restored
St. Augustine of Hippo (354-439)
Benozzo Gozzoli, 'Ambrose Baptizes Augustine'
San Gimignano, Italy, 1485
St. Gregory the Great (c540-604)
St. Athanasius (c296-373)
Albrecth Durer, woodcut of Gregory's Mass, 1511
contemporary web icon of St. Athanasius
Bernadino Parenzano, 'Temptation of Saint Antony;
1494, Galleria Dorio-Pamphili in Rome
St. Antony of the Desert (c250-356)
Dormition of Mary, Santa Maria Maggiore
Annunciation of birth of John the Baptist to Zachariah,
14th cent Glossa detail
Glossa Ordinaria from 1484 by Forlivo and Britannicus
Pope Leo XIII (d1903), Vatican Archive photo
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City
Michelangelo, "Pieta" in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Reformation
most celebrated Latin Father
born in Thagaste, Numidia (modern Algeria) to Monica and Patricius in 354
learned the "mystical interpretation" of Scripture from St. Ambrose, who had learned it from Origen
"conversions" from Pagan materialist to Manichaean dualism to "Platonism" to Christianity
On a visit to Hippo to recruit for his monastery, he was consecrated successor-bishop by Valerius. He immediately imersed himself in Scripture for 6 months.
His spirituality is profoundly ecclesial and sacramental - "body of Christ"
His eschatology drives most of this theology: God calls us to perfection, but we cannot acheive it apart from his grace, nor can we acheive it before death.
He speaks of the "great poverty of language" to express the nature of God, but offers serious reflection on the Trinity that has shaped Christian theology for 16 centuries.
Early in his career, he thought the human will and human knowledge were sufficient to choose and do good. However, after close study of Paul's letters, he became convinced of our utter need for God's grace. Humans are fundamentally good, but broken beyond our own ability to repair. We must depend on God to change us.
Augustine, Tractate on John 26.4 & 26.2
And here, if you will turn, no one comes to me unless the Father draws him. Do not think you are drawn unwillingly: the mind is drawn by love. Nor ought we to fear men who censure words. They are removed afar from the great things of divine understanding. In this we are reprehended by the Evangelical word of the Holy Scriptures. And still they say to us, “How do I believe willingly if I am drawn?” I say, “Voluntarily is not enough, for you are drawn by pleasure [voluptate].” What is it to be drawn by pleasure - voluptate? Delight in the Lord, and he gives you the petitions of your heart. This is the pleasure - voluptas of the heart, which is for that sweet heavenly bread. For if the poet is right to say “one’s desire - voluptas draws her,” you do not have need, but pleasure - voluptas; not oblgation, but delight: we ought to say resolutely to ourselves that the man who is delighted in truth, is delighted in beatitude, is delighted in justice, is delighted in eternal life, which Christ is entirely, [that man] is drawn to Christ. In truth, the senses of the body have their pleasures; is the mind without its pleasures? If the mind does not have its pleasures, how is it said the Son of man, however, shall hope under the cover of your wings: the are drunk from the abundance of your house, and you will give them drink from the torrent of your pleasure; for the font of life is near you, and in your light we see light. Give [me] a lover, and he feels what I said. Give [me] one who desires, give one who hungers, give a pilgrim in this solitude, thirsting and breathing hard at the font of the eternal father. Give [me] such a man, and he knows what I say. If, however, I speak to a frigid man, he does not know what I say. Such were those who murmured. The Father, he said will draw those who come to me...

What, therefore, did Jesus respond to such murmurs? Do not murmur among yourselves, as if saying, “I know why you are not hungry. You neither understand nor seek this bread.” Do not murmur among yourselves, no one is able to come to me unless the Father, who sent me, draws him. O how the greatness of grace is commended! No one comes unless drawn. Whom he draws and whom he does not draw; why he draws this one and does not draw that one – do not judge these matters if you do not want to err. Accept it at once and understand. Are you not now drawn? Pray that you will be drawn.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
most popular preacher and figure of 11th century society
considered a "founder" of Cistercian monasticism, a reform of Benedictine monasticism
Bernard was sent from Citeaux to found a monastery at Claire Vallee (Clairvaux) in 1115. The movement grew vigorously.
He preached sermons on the Song of Songs, and wrote treatises like "On Loving God," "the Steps of Humility and Pride," and "On Grace and Free Will."
Desire is a fundamental aspect of Bernard's theology. It has a Christological component – following Gregory the Great, Bernard notes that imago Dei is an ontological potential in man that has a self-emptying nature. Thus, man, as he is created, is made for a type of self-donation or kenosis that follows Christ on the Cross.
The "journey" motiff motivated by our longing is another fundamental element of Bernard's theology. Desire creates the tension of being a pilgrim at once possessing God in order to Love and be Loved by him, and being distant from God by having an ever deepening capacity to Love and be Loved.
“God is the cause of loving God.” -(On Loving God, various places (trans. CS))

“My love is less than is your due, yet not less than I am able, for even if I cannot love you as much as I should, still I cannot love you more than I can.” -(On Loving God, 16 (trans. CS))

Renouncing all together the affections of others,
she alone and entire reclines in love,
she who has herself responded to love in returning love.
Now, when she pours herself out totally into love,
How can this compare, this flow and the perennial fountain?
Not completely equal in fertility they flow
- Lover and Love, soul and Word, bride and bridegroom, Creator and creature –
a fountain greater than the thirsting.
What therefore? Does she hold back because of this, and
will she entirely leave the nuptial vow,
the desire of sighing, the ardor of loving, the faithful trust of anticipating,
because she does not wish to run as an equal with a giant, to contend with a sweet tune,
with a gentle lamb, with a radiant lily, with a clear sun, with his charity which is charity?
No. For even as a creature loves less because she is less,
when she loves with her entirety,
nothing is lacking where the entirety is.
Therefore, as it was said, she was married with true love;
Even though she is not able to love and to be loved equally,
in the consensus of the two she will stand whole, perfect, and married.
Lest one doubt that the soul is loved by the Word first and more-
all the more she is stood in front of and conquered by the lover.
Joy, who merits to stand before such a sweet blessing!
Joy, with which such a soft complexion is given to be experienced!
This is none other than the holy and chaste love,
love of gentleness and sweetness,
love of such great serenity and sincerity,
a love mutual, intimate, and real,
which is not in one flesh, but the two join completely in one spirit,
the two become now not two, but one, as the Pauline saying,
“Who adheres to God, is one spirit.” (I Cor 6:17)
-(Sermon on the Song of Songs, 83:6, (Opera, p 302; trans. T. Humphries))
St. Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274)
St. Bonaventure (1221-1274)
a Dominican Scholastic who was devoted to the Eucharist, ecumenism, and spiritual and intellectual formation
He wrote poems, songs, and treatises in various formats.
His work was originally held suspect because of his use of Aristotle, but was later hailed as brilliant and orthodox.
He was made a Cardinal and asked to attend the reunion council to be held at Lyon. He died along the way.
At the Cistercian monastery where he was resting on the journey, he had a vision. Afterwards, he reportedly said, "All I have written is straw."
Prologue 1: IN PRINCIPIO PRIMUM PRINCIPIUM

Prologue 4: Therefore, I first of all invite the reader to groans of prayer through Christ crucified, through whose blood we are purged from the stain of our sins. Do not think that reading is sufficient without unction, speculation without devotion, investigation without admiration, circumspection without exultation, industry without piety, knowledge without charity, intelligence without humility, study without divine grace, the mirror without the inspiration of divine wisdom. To those who are already disposed by divine grace – to the humble and pious; to those who are devout and sorrowful for their sins; to those anointed with the oil of gladness; to those who are lovers of divine wisdom and are inflamed with desire for it; and to those who wish to give themselves to glorifying, admiring, and even savoring God, I propose the following reflections. At the same time I warn them that to have the mirror of the external world placed before them is of little significance unless the mirror of the mind is cleansed and polished. Therefore, O child of God, awaken yourself first to the remorseful sting of conscience before you raise your eyes to those rays of wisdom that are reflected in its mirrors. Otherwise it might happen that the very act of looking on these rays might cause you to fall into an even more treacherous pit of darkness
Maccabean Revolt (173-164 BC)
Decian Persecutions (249-251)
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Judgement against Nestorius, Council of Ephesus (431)

The holy synod said: As, in addition to all else, the excellent Nestorius has declined to obey our summons and has not received the holy and God-fearing bishops we sent to him, we have of necessity started upon an investigation of his impieties. We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by the canons and by the letter of our most holy father and fellow servant Celestine, bishop of the church of the Romans, to issue this sad condemnation against him, though we do so with many tears.

Our lord Jesus Christ, who has been blasphemed by him, has determined through this most holy synod that the same Nestorius should be stripped of his episcopal dignity and removed from the college of priests.
I. CANONS
1 The profession of faith of the holy fathers who gathered in Nicaea in Bithynia is not to be abrogated, but it is to remain in force. Every heresy is to be anathematised and in particular that of the Eunomians or Anomoeans, that of the Arians or Eudoxians, that of the Semi-Arians or Pneumatomachi, that of the Sabellians that of the Marcellians, that of the Photinians and that of the Apollinarians.

2 Diocesan bishops are not to intrude in churches beyond their own boundaries nor are they to confuse the churches: but in accordance with the canons, the bishop of Alexandria is to administer affairs in Egypt only; the bishops of the East are to manage the East alone (whilst safeguarding the privileges granted to the church of the Antiochenes in the Nicene canons); and the bishops of the Asian diocese are to manage only Asian affairs; and those in Pontus only the affairs of Pontus; and those in Thrace only Thracian affairs. Unless invited bishops are not to go outside their diocese to perform an ordination or any other ecclesiastical business. If the letter of the canon about dioceses is kept, it is clear that the provincial synod will manage affairs in each province, as was decreed at Nicaea. But the churches of God among barbarian peoples must be administered in accordance with the custom in force at the time of the fathers.

3 Because it is new Rome, the bishop of Constantinople is to enjoy the privileges of honour after the bishop of Rome.

4 Regarding Maximus the Cynic and the disorder which surrounded him in Constantinople: he never became, nor is he, a bishop; nor are those ordained by him clerics of any rank whatsoever. Everything that was done both to him and by him is to be held invalid.

5 Regarding the Tome [2] of the Westerns: we have also recognised those in Antioch who confess a single Godhead of Father and Son and holy Spirit.
6 There are many who are bent on confusing and overturning the good order of the church and so fabricate, out of hatred and a wish to slander, certain accusations against orthodox bishops in charge of churches. Their intention is none other than to blacken priests' reputations and to stir up trouble among peace- loving laity. For this reason the sacred synod of bishops assembled at Constantinople has decided not to admit accusers without prior examination, and not to allow everyone to bring accusations against church administrators -- but with- out excluding everyone. So if someone brings a private (that is a personal) complaint against the bishop on the grounds that he has been defrauded or in some other way unjustly dealt with by him, in the case of this kind of accusation neither the character nor the religion of the accuser will be subject to examination. It is wholly essential both that the bishop should have a clear conscience and that the one who alleges that he has been wronged, whatever his religion may be, should get justice.

But if the charge brought against the bishop is of an ecclesiastical kind, then the characters of those making it should be examined, in the first place to stop heretics bringing charges against orthodox bishops in matters of an ecclesiastical kind. (We define "heretics" as those who have been previously banned from the church and also those later anathematised by ourselves: and in addition those who claim to confess a faith that is sound, but who have seceded and hold assemblies in rivalry with the bishops who are in communion with us.) In the second place, persons previously condemned and expelled from the church for whatever reason, or those excommunicated either from the clerical or lay rank, are not to be permitted to accuse a bishop until they have first purged their own crime. Similarly, those who are already accused are not permitted to accuse a bishop or other clerics until they have proved their own innocence of the crimes with which they are charged. But if persons who are neither heretics nor excommunicates, nor such as have been previously condemned or accused of some transgression or other, claim that they have some ecclesiastical charge to make against the bishop, the sacred synod commands that such persons should first lay the accusations before all the bishops of the province and prove before them the crimes committed by the bishop in the case. If it emerges that the bishops of the province are not able to correct the crimes laid at the bishop's door, then a higher synod of the bishops of that diocese, convoked to hear this case, must be approached, and the accusers are not to lay their accusations before it until they have given a written promise to submit to equal penalties should they be found guilty of making false accusations against the accused bishop, when the matter is investigated.
If anyone shows contempt of the prescriptions regarding the above matters and presumes to bother either the ears of the emperor or the courts of the secular authorities, or to dishonour all the diocesan bishops and trouble an ecumenical synod, there is to be no question whatever of allowing such a person to bring accusations forward, because he has made a mockery of the canons and violated the good order of the church.

7 Those who embrace orthodoxy and join the number of those who are being saved from the heretics, we receive in the following regular and customary manner: Arians, Macedonians, Sabbatians, Novatians, those who call themselves Cathars and Aristae, Quartodeciman or Tetradites, Apollinarians-these we receive when they hand in statements and anathematise every heresy which is not of the same mind as the holy, catholic and apostolic church of God. They are first sealed or anointed with holy chrism on the forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth and ears. As we seal them we say: "Seal of the gift of the holy Spirit". But Eunomians, who are baptised in a single immersion, Montanists (called Phrygians here), Sabellians, who teach the identity of Father and Son and make certain other difficulties, and all other sects -- since there are many here, not least those who originate in the country of the Galatians -- we receive all who wish to leave them and embrace orthodoxy as we do Greeks. On the first day we make Christians of them, on the second catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by breathing three times into their faces and their ears, and thus we catechise them and make them spend time in the church and listen to the scriptures; and then we baptise them.
THE PROFESSION OF FAITH OF THE 318 FATHERS

We believe in one God the Father all powerful, maker of all things both seen and unseen.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten begotten from the Father, that is from the substance [Gr. ousias, Lat. substantia] of the Father, God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten [Gr. gennethenta, Lat. natum] not made [Gr. poethenta, Lat. factum], CONSUBSTANTIAL [Gr. homoousion, Lat. unius substantiae (quod Graeci dicunt homousion)] with the Father, through whom all things came to be, both those in heaven and those in earth; for us humans and for our salvation he came down and became incarnate, became human, suffered and rose up on the third day, went up into the heavens, is coming to judge the living and the dead.
And in the holy Spirit.

And those who say "there once was when he was not", and "before he was begotten he was not", and that he came to be from things that were not, or from another hypostasis [Gr. hypostaseos] or substance [Gr. ousias, Lat. substantia], affirming that the Son of God is subject to change or alteration these the catholic and apostolic church anathematises.
CANONS
1. If anyone in sickness has undergone surgery at the hands of physicians or has been castrated by barbarians, let him remain among the clergy. But if anyone in good health has castrated himself, if he is enrolled among the clergy he should be suspended, and in future no such man should be promoted. But, as it is evident that this refers to those who are responsible for the condition and presume to castrate themselves, so too if any have been made eunuchs by barbarians or by their masters, but have been found worthy, the canon admits such men to the clergy.
2. Since, either through necessity or through the importunate demands of certain individuals, there have been many breaches of the church's canon, with the result that men who have recently come from a pagan life to the faith after a short catechumenate have been admitted at once to the spiritual washing, and at the same time as their baptism have been promoted to the episcopate or the presbyterate, it is agreed that it would be well for nothing of the kind to occur in the future. For a catechumen needs time and further probation after baptism, for the apostle's words are clear: "Not a recent convert, or he may be puffed up and fall into the condemnation and the snare of the devil". But if with the passage of time some sin of sensuality is discovered with regard to the person and he is convicted by two or three witnesses, such a one will be suspended from the clergy. If anyone contravenes these regulations, he will be liable to forfeit his clerical status for acting in defiance of this great synod.
3. This great synod absolutely forbids a bishop, presbyter, deacon or any of the clergy to keep a woman who has been brought in to live with him, with the exception of course of his mother or sister or aunt, or of any person who is above suspicion.
4. It is by all means desirable that a bishop should be appointed by all the bishops of the province. But if this is difficult because of some pressing necessity or the length of the journey involved, let at least three come together and perform the ordination, but only after the absent bishops have taken part in the vote and given their written consent. But in each province the right of confirming the proceedings belongs to the metropolitan bishop.
5. Concerning those, whether of the clergy or the laity, who have been excommunicated, the sentence is to be respected by the bishops of each province according to the canon which forbids those expelled by some to be admitted by others. But let an inquiry be held to ascertain whether anyone has been expelled from the community because of pettiness or quarrelsomeness or any such ill nature on the part of the bishop. Accordingly, in order that there may be proper opportunity for inquiry into the matter, it is agreed that it would be well for synods to be held each year in each province twice a year, so that these inquiries may be conducted by all the bishops of the province assembled together, and in this way by general consent those who have offended against their own bishop may be recognised by all to be reasonably excommunicated, until all the bishops in common may decide to pronounce a more lenient sentence on these persons. The synods shall be held at the following times: one before Lent, so that, all pettiness being set aside, the gift offered to God may be unblemished; the second after the season of autumn.
6. The ancient customs of Egypt, Libya and Pentapolis shall be maintained, according to which the bishop of Alexandria has authority over all these places since a similar custom exists with reference to the bishop of Rome. Similarly in Antioch and the other provinces the prerogatives of the churches are to be preserved. In general the following principle is evident: if anyone is made bishop without the consent of the metropolitan, this great synod determines that such a one shall not be a bishop. If however two or three by reason of personal rivalry dissent from the common vote of all, provided it is reasonable and in accordance with the church's canon, the vote of the majority shall prevail.
7. Since there prevails a custom and ancient tradition to the effect that the bishop of Aelia is to be honoured, let him be granted everything consequent upon this honour, saving the dignity proper to the metropolitan.
8. Concerning those who have given themselves the name of Cathars, and who from time to time come over publicly to the catholic and apostolic church, this holy and great synod decrees that they may remain among the clergy after receiving an imposition of hands. But before all this it is fitting that they give a written undertaking that they will accept and follow the decrees of the catholic church, namely that they will be in communion with those who have entered into a second marriage and with those who have lapsed in time of persecution and for whom a period [of penance] has been fixed and an occasion [for reconciliation] allotted, so as in all things to follow the decrees of the catholic and apostolic church. Accordingly, where all the ordained in villages or cities have been found to be men of this kind alone, those who are so found will remain in the clergy in the same rank; but when some come over in places where there is a bishop or presbyter belonging to the catholic church, it is evident that the bishop of the church will hold the bishop's dignity, and that the one given the title and name of bishop among the so-called Cathars will have the rank of presbyter, unless the bishop thinks fit to let him share in the honour of the title. But if this does not meet with his approval, the bishop will provide for him a place as chorepiscopus or presbyter, so as to make his ordinary clerical status evident and so prevent there being two bishops in the city.
9. If any have been promoted presbyters without examination, and then upon investigation have confessed their sins, and if after their confession men have imposed hands upon such people, being moved to act against the canon, the canon does not admit these people, for the catholic church vindicates only what is above reproach.
10. If any have been promoted to ordination through the ignorance of their promoters or even with their connivance, this fact does not prejudice the church's canon; for once discovered they are to be deposed.
6. The ancient customs of Egypt, Libya and Pentapolis shall be maintained, according to which the bishop of Alexandria has authority over all these places since a similar custom exists with reference to the bishop of Rome. Similarly in Antioch and the other provinces the prerogatives of the churches are to be preserved. In general the following principle is evident: if anyone is made bishop without the consent of the metropolitan, this great synod determines that such a one shall not be a bishop. If however two or three by reason of personal rivalry dissent from the common vote of all, provided it is reasonable and in accordance with the church's canon, the vote of the majority shall prevail.
7. Since there prevails a custom and ancient tradition to the effect that the bishop of Aelia is to be honoured, let him be granted everything consequent upon this honour, saving the dignity proper to the metropolitan.
8. Concerning those who have given themselves the name of Cathars, and who from time to time come over publicly to the catholic and apostolic church, this holy and great synod decrees that they may remain among the clergy after receiving an imposition of hands. But before all this it is fitting that they give a written undertaking that they will accept and follow the decrees of the catholic church, namely that they will be in communion with those who have entered into a second marriage and with those who have lapsed in time of persecution and for whom a period [of penance] has been fixed and an occasion [for reconciliation] allotted, so as in all things to follow the decrees of the catholic and apostolic church. Accordingly, where all the ordained in villages or cities have been found to be men of this kind alone, those who are so found will remain in the clergy in the same rank; but when some come over in places where there is a bishop or presbyter belonging to the catholic church, it is evident that the bishop of the church will hold the bishop's dignity, and that the one given the title and name of bishop among the so-called Cathars will have the rank of presbyter, unless the bishop thinks fit to let him share in the honour of the title. But if this does not meet with his approval, the bishop will provide for him a place as chorepiscopus or presbyter, so as to make his ordinary clerical status evident and so prevent there being two bishops in the city.
9. If any have been promoted presbyters without examination, and then upon investigation have confessed their sins, and if after their confession men have imposed hands upon such people, being moved to act against the canon, the canon does not admit these people, for the catholic church vindicates only what is above reproach.
10. If any have been promoted to ordination through the ignorance of their promoters or even with their connivance, this fact does not prejudice the church's canon; for once discovered they are to be deposed.
11. Concerning those who have transgressed without necessity or the confiscation of their property or without danger or anything of this nature, as happened under the tyranny of Licinius, this holy synod decrees that, though they do not deserve leniency, nevertheless they should be treated mercifully. Those therefore among the faithful who genuinely repent shall spend three years among the hearers, for seven years they shall be prostrators, and for two years they shall take part with the people in the prayers, though not in the offering.
12. Those who have been called by grace, have given evidence of first fervour and have cast off their [military] belts, and afterwards have run back like dogs to their own vomit, so that some have even paid money and recovered their military status by bribes -- such persons shall spend ten years as prostrators after a period of three years as hearers. In every case, however, their disposition and the nature of their penitence should be examined. For those who through their fear and tears and perseverance and good works give evidence of their conversion by deeds and not by outward show, when they have completed their appointed term as hearers, may properly take part in the prayers, and the bishop is competent to decide even more favourably in their regard. But those who have taken the matter lightly, and have thought that the outward form of entering the church is all that is required for their conversion, must complete their term to the full.
13. Concerning the departing, the ancient canon law is still to be maintained namely that those who are departing are not to be deprived of their last, most necessary viaticum. But if one whose life has been despaired of has been admitted to communion and has shared in the offering and is found to be numbered again among the living, he shall be among those who take part in prayer only [here a variant reading in Les canons des conciles oecumeniques adds "until the term fixed by this great ecumenical synod has been completed"]. But as a general rule, in the case of anyone whatsoever who is departing and seeks to share in the eucharist, the bishop upon examining the matter shall give him a share in the offering.
14. Concerning catechumens who have lapsed, this holy and great synod decrees that, after they have spent three years as hearers only, they shall then be allowed to pray with the catechumens.
15. On account of the great disturbance and the factions which are caused, it is decreed that the custom, if it is found to exist in some parts contrary to the canon, shall be totally suppressed, so that neither bishops nor presbyters nor deacons shall transfer from city to city. If after this decision of this holy and great synod anyone shall attempt such a thing, or shall lend himself to such a proceeding, the arrangement shall be totally annulled, and he shall be restored to the church of which he was ordained bishop or presbyter or deacon.
16. Any presbyters or deacons or in general anyone enrolled in any rank of the clergy who depart from their church recklessly and without the fear of God before their eyes or in ignorance of the church's canon, ought not by any means to be received in another church, but all pressure must be applied to them to induce them to return to their own dioceses, or if they remain it is right that they should be excommunicated. But if anyone dares to steal away one who belongs to another and to ordain him in his church without the consent of the other's own bishop among whose clergy he was enrolled before he departed, the ordination is to be null.
17. Since many enrolled [among the clergy] have been induced by greed and avarice to forget the sacred text, "who does not put out his money at interest", and to charge one per cent [a month] on loans, this holy and great synod judges that if any are found after this decision to receive interest by contract or to transact the business in any other way or to charge [a flat rate of] fifty per cent or in general to devise any other contrivance for the sake of dishonourable gain, they shall be deposed from the clergy and their names struck from the roll.
18. It has come to the attention of this holy and great synod that in some places and cities deacons give communion to presbyters, although neither canon nor custom allows this, namely that those who have no authority to offer should give the body of Christ to those who do offer. Moreover it has become known that some of the deacons now receive the eucharist even before the bishops. All these practices must be suppressed. Deacons must remain within their own limits, knowing that they are the ministers of the bishop and subordinate to the presbyters. Let them receive the eucharist according to their order after the presbyters from the hands of the bishop or the presbyter. Nor shall permission be given for the deacons to sit among the presbyters, for such an arrangement is contrary to the canon and to rank. If anyone refuses to comply even after these decrees, he is to be suspended from the diaconate.
19. Concerning the former Paulinists who seek refuge in the catholic church, it is determined that they must be rebaptised unconditionally. Those who in the past have been enrolled among the clergy, if they appear to be blameless and irreproachable, are to be rebaptised and ordained by the bishop of the catholic church. But if on inquiry they are shown to be unsuitable, it is right that they should be deposed. Similarly with regard to deaconesses and all in general whose names have been included in the roll, the same form shall be observed. We refer to deaconesses who have been granted this status, for they do not receive any imposition of hands, so that they are in all respects to be numbered among the laity.
20. Since there are some who kneel on Sunday and during the season of Pentecost, this holy synod decrees that, so that the same observances may be maintained in every diocese, one should offer one's prayers to the Lord standing.
4 Degrees of Loving God
First Degree:
Man loves himself for his own sake (VIII.23)
Second Degree:
Man loves God for his own benefit (IX.26)
Third Degree:
Man loves God for God’s sake (IX.26)
Fourth Degree:
Man loves God beyond himself (X.27)
Holy love is the only subject treated in this Song. We must remember that love reveals itself, not by words or phrases, but by action and experience. It is Love which speaks here, and if anyone wishes to understand it, let him first love. Otherwise it would be folly to read this song of love, because it is absolutely impossible for a cold heart to grasp the meaning of language so inflamed.
- (Sermon 70:1)
Abelard: Sic et Non
Lombard: Sententia
University and "quaestio"
A basic theme is posed and divided into separate articles which are, questions in themselves.
Each article begins with objecting arguments, taken from various authorities
Then, the article poses an "on the contrary" argument
Then, the author states his basic answer.
Then, the author responds to each objecting argument.
This follows the classroom style of the "disputatio" in which a basic question generates many good ideas, some of which are in tension, and the scholar is asked to resolve the tension in order to move deeper into understanding the issue.
ST IIIa q. 75 a. 2
Whether in this sacrament the substance of the bread and wine remains after the consecration?

Objection 1. It seems that the substance of the bread and wine does remain in this sacrament after the consecration: because Damascene says (De Fide Orth. iv): “Since it is customary for men to eat bread and drink wine, God has wedded his Godhead to them, and made them His body and blood”: and further on: “The bread of communication is not simple bread, but is united to the Godhead.” But wedding together belongs to things actually existing. Therefore the bread and wine are at the same time, in this sacrament, with the body and the blood of Christ.

Objection 2. Further, there ought to be conformity between the sacraments. But in the other sacraments the substance of the matter remains, like the substance of water in Baptism, and the substance of chrism in Confirmation. Therefore the substance of the bread and wine remains also in this sacrament.

Objection 3. Further, bread and wine are made use ofin this sacrament, inasmuch as they denote ecclesiastical unity, as “one bread is made from many grains and wine from many grapes,” as Augustine says in his book on the Creed (Tract. xxvi in Joan.). But this belongs to the substance of bread and wine. Therefore, the substance of the bread and wine remains in this sacrament.

On the contrary, Ambrose says (De Sacram. iv): “Although the figure of the bread and wine be seen, still, after the Consecration, they are to be believed to be nothing else than the body and blood of Christ.”
I answer that, Some have held that the substance of the bread and wine remains in this sacrament after the consecration. But this opinion cannot stand: first of all, because by such an opinion the truth of this sacrament is destroyed, to which it belongs that Christ’s true body exists in this sacrament; which indeed was not there before the consecration. Now a thing cannot be in any place, where it was not previously, except by change of place, or by the conversion of another thing into itself; just as firebegins a new to be in some house, either because it is carried thither, or because it is generated there. Now it is evident that Christ’s body does not begin to be present in this sacrament by local motion. First of all, because it would follow that it would cease to be in heaven: for what is moved locally does not come anew to some place unless it quit the former one. Secondly, because every body moved locally passes through all intermediary spaces, which cannot be said here. Thirdly, because it is not possible for one movement of the same body moved locally to be terminated in different places at the one time, whereas the body of Christ under this sacrament begins at the one time to be in several places. And consequently it remains that Christ’s body cannot begin to be anew in this sacrament except by change of the substance of bread into itself. But what is changed into another thing, no longer remains after such change. Hence the conclusion is that, saving the truth of this sacrament, the substance of the bread cannot remain after the consecration. Secondly, because this position is contrary to the form of this sacrament, in which it is said: “This is My body,” which would not be true if the substance of the bread were to remain there; for the substance of bread never is the body of Christ. Rather should one say in that case: “Here is My body.” Thirdly, because it would be opposed to the veneration of this sacrament, if any substance were there, which could not be adored with adoration of latria. Fourthly, because it is contrary to the rite of the Church, according to which it is not lawful to take the body of Christ after bodily food, while it is nevertheless lawful to take one consecrated host after another. Hence this opinion is to be avoided as heretical.
Reply to Objection 1. God “wedded His Godhead,”i.e. His Divine power, to the bread and wine, not that these may remain in this sacrament, but in order that He may make from them His body and blood.
Reply to Objection 2. Christ is not really present inthe other sacraments, as in this; and therefore the substance of the matter remains in the other sacraments, but not in this.
Reply to Objection 3. The species which remain in this sacrament, as shall be said later (a. 5), suffice for its signification; because the nature of the substance is known by its accidents.
Outline of the Summa Theologiae on the Eucharist (III.73-85)
"We have now to consider the sacrament of the Eucahrist, and first of all we treat of the sacrament itself; secondly, of its matter; thirdly, of its form; fourthly, of its effects; fifthly, of the recipients of this sacrament; sixthly, of the minister; seventhly of the Rite." -(ST III. 73. pref.)

73 - The Sacrament in General

74 - The Matter of the Sacrament

75 - The Change of Bread and Wine

76 - The Way in which Christ is in this Sac.

77 - The Accidents which Remain
78 - On the Form of this Sacrament

79 - On the Effects of this Sacrament

80 - On the Reception of this Sacrament

81 - On Christ's Institution of this Sacrament

82 - On the Minister of this Sacrament

83 - On the Rite of this Sacrament
1. Whether the Eucharist is a Sacrament?
2. Whether the Eucahrist is one sacrament or several?
3. Whether the Eucharist is necessary for salvation?
4. Whether this sacrament is suitably called by various names?
5. Whether the institution of this sacrament was appropriate?
6. Whether the Paschal Lamb was the chief figure of this sacrament?
1. Are bread and wine the matter of this sacrament?
2. Is a determinate quantity of the same required for the matter of this sacrament?
3. Is the matter of this sacrament wheaten bread?
4. Is it unleavened or fermented bread?
5. Is the matter of this sacrament wine from the grape?
6. Should water be mixed with it?
7. Is water of necessity for this sacrament?
8. The quantity of the water added
1. Is the Body of Christ in this sacrament truly, or figuratively?
2. Do the substance of bread and wine remain in this sacrament after the consecration?
3. Is it annihilated?
4. Is it changed into the body and blood of Christ?
5. Do the accidents remain after the change?
6. Does the substantial form remain there?
7. Is this change instantaneous?
8. By what words it may be suitably expressed?
1. Is the whole Christ under this sacrament?
2. Is the entire Christ under each species of the sacrament?
3. Is the entire Christ under every part of the species?
4. Are all the dimensions of Christ's body in this sacrament?
5. Is the body of Christ in this sacrament locally?
6. After the consecration, is the body of Christ moved when the host or chalice is moved?
7. As it is in this sacrament, can Christ's body be seen by the eye?
8. Does the true body of Christ remain in this sacrament when He is seen under the appearance of a child or of flesh?
1. Are the accidents which remain without a subject?
2. Is dimensive quantity the subject of the other accidents?
3. Can such accidents affect an extrinsic body?
4. Can they be corrupted?
5. Can anything be generated from them?
6. Can they nourish?
7. The breaking of the consecrated bread
8. Can anything be mixed with the consecrated wine?
1. What is the form of this sacrament?
2. Is the form for the consecration of the bread appropriate?
3. Is the form for the consecration of the blood appropriate?
4. The power of each form
5. The truth of the expression
6. The comparison of the one form with the other
1. Did Christ receive His own body and blood?
2. Did He give it to Judas?
3. What kind of body did He receive or give, namely, was it passible or impassible?
4. What would have been the condition of Christ's body under this sacrament, if it had been reserved or consecrated during the three days He lay dead?
1. Are there two ways of eating this sacrament, namely, sacramentally and spiritually?
2. Does it belong to man alone to eat this sacrament spiritually?
3. Does it belong to the just man only to eat it sacramentally?
4. Does the sinner sin in eating it sacramentally?
5. The degree of this sin
6. Should this sacrament be refused to the sinner that approaches it?
7. Does nocturnal pollution prevent man from receiving this sacrament?
8. Is it to be received only when one is fasting?
9. Is it to be given to them who lack the use of reason?
10. Is it to be received daily?
11. Is it lawful to refrain from it altogether?
12. Is it lawful to receive the body without the blood?
1. Does this sacrament bestow grace?
2. Is the attaining of glory an effect of this sacrament?
3. Is the forgiveness of mortal sin an effect of this sacrament?
4. Is venial sin forgiven by this sacrament?
5. Is the entire punishment due for sin forgiven by this sacrament?
6. Does this sacrament preserve man from future sins?
7. Does this sacrament benefit others besides the recipients?
8. The obstacles to the effect of this sacrament
1. Does it belong to a priest alone to consecrate this sacrament?
2. Can several priests consecrate the same host at the same time?
3. Does it belong to the priest alone to dispense this sacrament?
4. Is it lawful for the priest consecrating to refrain from communicating?
5. Can a priest in sin perform this sacrament?
6. Is the Mass of a wicked priest of less value than that of a good one?
7. Can those who are heretics, schismatics, or excommunicated, perform this sacrament?
8. Can degraded priests do so?
9. Are communicants receiving at their hands guilty of sinning?
10. May a priest lawfully refrain altogether from celebrating?
1. Is Christ sacrificed in the celebration of this mystery?
2. The time of celebrating
3. The place and other matters relating to the equipment for this celebration
4. The words uttered in celebrating this mystery
5. The actions performed in celebrating this mystery
6. The defects which occur in the celebration of this sacrament
St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
John Wesley (1703-1791)
John Calvin (1509-1564)
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Lateran IV (1215)
+
Vienne (1311-1313)
Constance (1414-1418)
Lateran V (1512-1517)
Vatican I (1869-1870)
Vatican II (1962-1965)
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Matthias Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, 1506-1515
John Wesley arrives in Georgia, 1736
Thomas Muntzer (1489-1525)
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Conrad Grebel (1498-1526)
The German Reformation
The Swiss Reformation (the Reformed Tradition)
The Catholic Reformation
St. Carlo Borromeo (1538-1584)
translation from R. Norris, "The Christological Controversy"
Arians were using verses like Mt 28:18, Jn 5:22, Jn 3:35-36, Mt 11:27, and Jn 6:37 to argue that the Son is less than the Father.
Athanasius responds to the Arian subordination of the Son by claiming that this is not Christian. Rather, it is like Judas, who betrayed Jesus.
Athanasius even argues that "Arians" are not even "Christian."
Athanasius argues that the Arians do not read Scripture well. Instead of containing a single account, the Scriptures contain " a double account of the Savior."
There are passages which speak to the equality of the Son with the Father. Arians cannot understand these passages.
Athanasius argues that the Arians do not read Scripture well. Instead of containing a single account, the Scriptures contain " a double account of the Savior."
Creation
Patriarchs
Exodus
Judges
Monarchy
Exile and Return
Greek Conquest
Roman Period
1850-1250BC
1250-1130BC
1130-1020BC
1020-587BC
587-332BC
332-39BC
39BC - AD
Samuel is prophet to Saul
King David
Elijah is prophet while Ahab is King
Ezekiel is prophet at large
It is not without reason, therefore, that Scripture mentions both: that they Son is equal to the Father and that the Father is greater than the Son, for without any confusion, the first is understood of the form of God, but the second of the form of man. - Augustine, Trin. 1.7.14
Some things in the Scriptures concerning the Father and the Son are, therefore, put in such a way as to indicate the unity and the equality of the substance of the Father and the Son... but some are so put as to show that the Son is less on account of the form of a slave, that is, on account of the creature with a changeable and human substance that He assumed... Furthermore, some are so put, not that He may be then shown to be either less or equal, but only to intimate that He is of the Father. - Augustine, Trin. 2.1.3
First Exegetical Rule
Second Exegetical Rule
That is to say that the Word is not only to be understood as the man sent, but also that the Word was sent in order to become man. For He was sent not in respect to any unlikeness either in power or substance or of anything in Him which is not equal to the Father, but in respect to this, that the Son is of the Father, not the Father of the Son. -Augustine, Trin. 4.20.27
As the Father has life in himself, so He has given to the Son to have life in himself.
- Jn 5:26
For neither can the Son do anything of himself, but only what he sees the Father doing. - Jn 5:19
"who is from whom" Augustine, Trin. 2.1.3
My teaching is not my own, but his who sent me. - Jn 7:16
For this can be applied to the form of a slave... as well as to the form of God, in which He is thus equal to the Father, but yet that he is of the Father.
- Augustine, Trin. 2.2.4
Seraph from Monreal Cathedral
per vestigia eius [Dei] in universo
in vestigiis suis in hoc sensibili mundo
per suam imaginem naturalibus potentiis insignitam
in sua imgine donis gratuitis reformata
per eius nomen primarium quod est esse
in eius nomine quod est bonum
de excessu mentali et mystico
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We read a text by which 4th century Catholic theologian?

A - Arius
B - St. Athanasius
C - St. Cyril
D - Nestorius
St. Athanasius wrote against which figure?

A - Nestorius/ Nestorians
B - Arius/ Arians
C - Alexander/ Catholics
St. Athanasius thinks that his arguments make sense of Sacred Scripture better than Arius' arguments.

D
- False
E
- True
This 5th century theologian opposed the title theotokos ("Mother of God") for Mary.

A- Nestorius
B- Cyril
C- Arius
This 5th century theologian argued in support of the title theotokos ("Mother of God") for Mary.

A- Nestorius
B- Cyril
C- Arius
This is the Ecumenical Council which condemned Nestorius in 431.

A - Nicaea I
B - Constantinople I
C - Ephesus
D - Chalcedon
This prezi is intended for educational use with current students only.
Marcion d. 160
Tatian d. 180
Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 428)
Full transcript