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Events leading to Armistice & Reasons for Allied victory & German collapse

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Stephanie Schenk

on 5 December 2017

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Transcript of Events leading to Armistice & Reasons for Allied victory & German collapse

Syllabus Check
Assessment Feedback
'Own Knowledge' Source Based Questions
Lots of students said "Source A" or "Source B" - this is excellent. You will not get full marks if you don't make direct & explicit reference to sources
Remember that the sources will only give so much - you should be able to demonstrate clearly what you know besides what the source told you.
E.g. For the women question you could have added details about the workforce, munitionettes & how the increase in pay for women affected their leisure activities
Usefulness, Perspective & Reliability 10 Marker
The question is about usefulness above all - you need to link everything you talk about to usefulness.
Deal with the sources separately & spend an even amount of time on each. Do not compare sources.
Some students said that a source was useful because it was primary/secondary. This does not provide an analysis of sources. High level responses explained why the primary/secondary nature of sources was useful e.g. eye witness account; benefit of hindsight & research
Events leading to the Armistice, 1918
US president Woodrow Wilson had been promoting the idea of 'peace without victory' in 1917. This involved focusing on peace negotiations rather than battle fronts. The belligerents did not support this idea.
Wilson began to insist that Germany change their governing system from imperial towards democracy
on January 8, 1918, Wilson announced his Fourteen Points as a basis for world peace.
During Ludendorff's Spring Offensive, the German military was interested in peace BUT on their terms. They believed they could force the Allies to accept their terms if they won enough territory. They could use this territory as leverage during peace negotiations.
As the Allies gained the upper hand on the Western Front, the German High Command was forced to consider Wilson's 14 points. This meant evacuating occupied territory and creating a new government.
The choice was now a 'just peace' based on Wilson's proposal or a 'punitive peace' at the hands of a vengeful Britain and France.
How did they gain the upper hand?
Events Leading to the Armistice, 1918
Using the 'key events' information sheet, create a SCALED timeline of the events of 1918.
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Germany's Army Exhausted
Ludendorff's Spring Offensive in 1918 had been a total effort from the Germans. The Germans had no reserves, conscripting old men and young boys to make up numbers. German industry was collapsing.
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Improved Allied Generalship
By 1918, the Allies poor performing Generals had been removed and replaced by junior officers who gained experience in the field. E.g. John Monash who created new tactics suited to modern warfare (tanks, artillery & aircraft).
The Allies were fighting under the united leadership of General Foch.
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Arrival of the Americans
By July 1918, American forces were becoming a major factor in the fighting on the Western Front during the Allied counteroffensive. The Germans no longer outnumbered the Allies.
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Entry of the US
The US entered the war in April 1917. Allied morale lifted. German morale declined. The American navy successfully supported the Allies and made shipping safer (convoy system).
The American military made an impact in the Allied counteroffensive in August 1918.
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Superiority of the Allied Economy & Military
While Germany had the military & economic upper hand at the outbreak of war, total war ensured the Allies had military and economic advantages. The Allies were able to call upon the resources of the British Empire, French Empire, Russia, Italy & the USA. Germany had itself & Austria Hungary, who were more of a hindrance.
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Ludendorff's role in the defeat
Ludendorff failed to make use of tanks & failed to make contingency plans if they didn't work out. German strategy lacked an overarching plan, which exhausted troops. The army broke down & the home front collapsed into violence, mutiny & revolution
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Allied Blockade
Germany relied upon imports of resources including food and raw materials. In 1914, the Allies enforced a tight blockade on German imports. This caused enormous hardships for the German economy & home front. It limited their ability to supply its armies.
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Failure of the Schlieffen Plan
Germany planned to take France within 6 weeks and then fight on the Eastern Front. Their initial failure to take France resulted in Germany fighting a war on two fronts, splitting its military capacity.
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse
Strains on the German Home Front
By 1916, inflation, rationing & food shortages were commonplace. The inequality of suffering caused social problems, disillusionment & war weariness. Morale dropped, production dropped & strikes increased. People suffered more on the home front in Germany than any Allied home fronts.
Sort the following reasons for Allied victory & German defeat into long term & short term causes.
Germany's army exhausted
Improved Allied generalship
Arrival of the Americans
Entry of the US
Superiority of the Allied economy & military
Allied Blockade
Failure of Schlieffen plan
Strains on German home front
Reasons for the Allied Victory & German Collapse - WRITING TASK
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