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Career in Nursing

PreCollegiate #1
by

MJ G

on 17 October 2013

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Transcript of Career in Nursing

Careers
NURSING
Provides for the health needs of individuals, families, and groups in diverse settings. Emphasis on helping patients stay well and independent in their home environment as long as possible Varies from holistic health/wellness, perinatal, and pediatric to emergent and urgent problems
Characteristics: Varied specialties to choose from, regular hours, less stress than inpatient settings, collegial relationships
Client age group: All ages, depends on targeted population
Drawbacks: Brief patient contacts, medical model versus nursing-based model of practice
Desirable skills: Phlebotomy, IV therapy, ECG, triage and telephone advice, teaching, communication skills, autonomy and independence
Education: RN with AD, diploma, or BSN
Employers: Ambulatory providers such as surgicenters, primary care offices, HMOs, clinics, special procedure and mobile health units, colleges, universities, home health agencies, day care centers, homeless shelters, the military, retirement communities
Cardiac Rehabilitation Nurse
Meets the need for education and support of patients with coronary heart disease who are making lifestyle changes to prevent worsening of the disease. Monitors patients during physical workouts to prevent overexertion and/or injury
Diagnoses: Postoperative coronary bypass, valve replacement, heart catheterization, angioplasty, stents, and post-MI patients
Practice roles: Staff nurse, clinical nurse specialist, nurse manager, coordinator, supervisor, director, executive, educator, researcher
Characteristics: Strong teaching and cardiac assessment skills
Client age group: Adults
Drawbacks: Patient resistance and nonadherence to prescribed therapy; patient relapse, emergencies
Desirable skills: Communication, teaching, commitment to physical fitness and wellness, emergency management
Education: RN (BSN preferred)
Employers: Hospitals, medical offices, fitness centers
Diagnoses: Acute, such as trauma and influenza, and chronic health problems, including AIDS, substance abuse, mental illness, renal failure/dialysis, respiratory diseases, terminal cancer
Practice roles: Staff nurse, clinical nurse specialist, nurse practitioner, nurse manager, supervisor, coordinator, director
Characteristics: Making a difference, long-term relationships, patient gratitude
Client age group: Children, adults
Drawbacks: Presence of guards, difficulty in establishing trust and confidential relationships, bureaucratic red tape
Desirable skills: Medical-surgical, emergency management, and trauma skills; ability to function independently
Education: RN with AD, diploma, or BSN
Employers: Correctional systems/prisons, staffing agencies, juvenile offender facilities
Description: Specializes in the prevention of pressure ulcers and management and rehabilitation of patients with wounds, ostomies, and incontinence
Diagnoses: Stomas, including colostomy, ileostomy, urostomy; wounds such as surgical, pressure ulcers, fistulas, and venous/arterial ulcers; incontinence (urinary, fecal)
Practice roles: Nurse enterostomal therapist, nurse manager, supervisor, coordinator, director, executive, educator, consultant
Characteristics: Hands-on care, independence and autonomy, making a difference, patient gratitude, long-term patient relationships, new treatments and technology
Client age group: All ages
Drawbacks: Grief and loss, difficult patient contacts
Desirable skills: Strong psychomotor skills, excellent communication and teaching skills, positive attitude
Education: RN with BSN
Employers: Hospitals, office practices, pharmacies/suppliers, homecare agencies, clinics, extended-care facilities
Description: Provides essential care of patients undergoing procedures for screening, diagnosis, and/or treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, and may specialize in endoscopy.
Practice setting: Inpatient settings, such as acute-care hospitals and outpatient settings, such as ambulatory care, office practice, manufacturing companies
Client age group: Children, adults, elderly
Diagnoses: Dysphagia, reflux, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, GI bleeding, abnormal x-ray findings or biopsy, obstruction, suspected carcinoma, caustic ingestion, strictures, removal of foreign bodies, varices, suspected ulcer, persistent vomiting
Practice roles: Clinical-staff nurse, endoscopy nurse, clinical nurse specialist, nurse manager, supervisor, nurse educator, research nurse, equipment salesperson
Characteristics: Patient care and relationships, education, assisting with endoscopies, independently perform some procedures
Challenges: Brief patient contacts and lack of patient follow-up, medical model of practice vs. nursing model, hazards from working with fluoroscopy, emergencies, stress
Desirable skills: Documentation, research, knowledge of instruments/equipment and disinfection, quality improvement, technical skills
Education: RN with AD, diploma, or BSN
Employers: Hospitals, free-standing centers, office practices, companies
Practice setting: Inpatient and outpatient facilities
Client age group: From infancy to elderly
Practice roles: Case managers, administrators, program coordinators, educators, genetic counselors, researchers
Characteristics: Long-term patient and family relationships and ongoing care
Challenges: Informed decision-making and consent process, privacy and confidentiality, truth-telling and disclosure, nondiscrimination, dealing with negative outcomes
Desirable skills: Advocacy, teaching, counseling, case management, research, knowledge of genetics
Education: RN with BSN, MSN (preferred), doctorate
Employers: University medical centers, research facilities
Description: Specializes in identifying, controlling, and preventing outbreaks of infection in healthcare settings and the community. Activities include the collection and analysis of infection-control data; the planning, implementation, and evaluation of infection prevention and control measures; the education of individuals about infection risk, prevention, and control; the development and revision of infection control policies and procedures; the investigation of suspected outbreaks of infection; and the provision of consultation on infection risk assessment, prevention, and control strategies
Diagnoses: HIV/AIDS, TB, scabies, nosocomial infections; also prevention
Practice roles: Infection control nurse, nurse manager, supervisor, coordinator, director, educator, researcher
Characteristics: Collaborative relationships, high-profile position, patient contact, teaching and consulting opportunities
Client age group: All ages
Drawbacks: Multitude of federal/organizational mandates and guidelines; can be difficult to keep knowledge current
Desirable skills: Knowledge and expertise in microbiology, epidemiology, statistics, sterilization and disinfection, infectious diseases, antibiotic usage, and clinical practice; consultative and teaching skills
Education: RN
Employers: Hospitals, long-term care facilities, home care, and ambulatory care agencies
Description: Initiate, monitors, and terminates therapies including medications, antineoplastic agents, investigational drugs, blood products, and parenteral nutrition. Performs venous and arterial punctures, maintain the intravascular site including tubing and dressings, monitor for infections, initiate emergency therapies, assess patients for adverse reactions and complications, and document all patient-directed activities
Diagnoses: Wide range of problems
Practice roles: Staff nurse, clinical nurse, specialist, nurse manager
Characteristics: Role autonomy and independence, patient care and relationships, teamwork, patient teaching, innovative thinking, technical mastery
Client age group: All ages
Drawbacks: Irregular schedules including 24-hour and on-call, bureaucracy, stress, pressure, excessive paperwork, policies
Desirable skills: Medical-surgical experience including IV, phlebotomy, and venous access; independence and flexibility
Education: RN with AD, Diploma, or BSN
Employers: Hospitals, home health agencies, physician offices
Description: Long-term care is the provision of nursing, medical, psychosocial, and personal care services on a recurring or continuing basis to persons with chronic physical or mental disorders
Diagnoses: AIDS, terminal illnesses, psychosocial and behavioral problems, head injuries
Practice roles: Staff nurse, clinical nurse specialist, nurse practitioner, nurse manager, coordinator, supervisor, director, executive, educator
Characteristics: Less pressured and chaotic than acute care; death viewed as natural life process; long-term relationships with patients and families; satisfaction of providing comfort for frail older person
Client age group: Those of all ages with chronic illness; particularly the elderly
Drawbacks: Increasing patient acuity and use of technology, staffing problems
Desirable skills: Medical-surgical skills such as IVs, ventilators, tube feedings; mentoring, teaching, team building
Education: RN with AD, diploma, or BSN
Employers: Hospitals (including subacute care), nursing homes, extended care facilities, retirement communities, home-health agencies
Managed Care Nurse
Description: Control financial expenditures by modifying the behaviors of both providers and consumers and improve the quality of outcomes. Emphasis is on basic prevention and self-care; and appropriate care for patients, often within set guidelines
Diagnoses: All health problems including psychiatric
Practice roles: Staff nurse, clinical nurse specialist, nurse practitioner, nurse manager, coordinator, supervisor, patient educator, counselor, medical underwriter, utilization reviewer
Characteristics: Regular hours, focus on efficiency and improved outcomes
Client age group: All ages
Drawbacks: Fast pace, extensive paperwork
Desirable skills: Effective communication abilities, diplomacy, ability to document activities and to problem solve; knowledge of hospital and community resources
Education: RN with AD, diploma, or BSN
Employers: HMOs, health insurance companies, telephone triage centers
Pediatric Nurse
Pediatric Oncology Nurse
Hospice Nurse
ER Nurse
Flight Nurse
Managed Care Nurse
Long-Term Care Nurse
Ambulatory care nursing
Advanced practice nursing
Burn nursing
Camp nursing
Cardiac nursing
Cardiac catheter laboratory nursing
Medical case management
Community health nursing
Correctional nursing
Critical care nursing
Emergency and trauma nursing
Environmental health nursing
Faith community nursing
Flight nursing
Forensic nursing
Gastroenterology nursing
Genetics nursing
Geriatric nursing
Health visiting
Holistic nursing
Home health nursing
Hospice and palliative care nursing
Hyperbaric nursing
Immunology and allergy nursing
Intravenous therapy nursing
Infection control nursing
Infectious disease nursing
Legal nursing
Maternal-child nursing
Medical-surgical nursing
Mental health or psychiatric nursing
Midwifery
Military and uniformed services nursing
Neonatal nursing
Neurosurgical nursing
Nursing informatics
Nursing management
nursing Research
Obstetrical nursing
Occupational health nursing
Oncology nursing
Orthopaedic nursing
Ostomy nursing
Pediatric nursing
Perianesthesia nursing
Perioperative nursing
Private duty nursing
Psychiatric or mental health nursing
Public health nursing
Pulmonary nursing
Quality improvement
Radiology nursing
Rehabilitation nursing
Renal nursing
School nursing
Space nursing
Sub-acute nursing
Substance abuse nursing
Surgical nursing
Telenursing
Telephone triage nursing
Transplantation nursing
Travel nursing
Urology nursing
Utilization management
Wound care
Ambulatory Care Nurse
Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations.
-American Nurses Association

Advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) is an umbrella term given to a registered nurse who has at least a Master’s educational and clinical practice requirements beyond the basic nursing education and licensing required of all RNs and who provides at least some level of direct care to patient populations.
Working in clinics, nursing homes, hospitals, or private offices, nurse practitioners provide a wide range of primary and preventive health care services, prescribe medication, and diagnose and treat common minor illnesses and injuries.
CNMs provide well-woman gynecological and low-risk obstetrical care in hospitals, birth centers, and homes.
Working in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, private offices, and community-based settings, CNSs handle a wide range of physical and mental health problems. They also work in consultation, research, education, and administration.
The oldest of the advanced nursing specialties, CRNAs administer more than 65 percent of anesthetics given to patients each year.
Advanced Practice Registered Nurses
Clinical Nurse Specialist
(CNS)
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Certified Nurse-Midwife
(CNM)
Perform physical exams and health histories
What is Nursing?
Conduct research in support of improved practice and patient outcomes
Direct and supervise care delivered by other healthcare personnel like LPNs and nurse aides
Coordinate care, in collaboration with a wide array of healthcare professionals
Interpret patient information and make critical decisions about needed actions
Administer medications, wound care, and numerous other personalized interventions
Provide health promotion, counseling and education
What is Nursing?
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)
Outpatient
Nursing
Provides for the healthcare of inmates in correctional facilities such as juvenile offender homes, jails, prisons, and penitentiaries
AIDS Nurse
Genetics Nurse
Correctional Nurse
Provides for the health needs of individuals, families, and groups in diverse settings. Emphasis on helping patients stay well and independent in their home environment as long as possible Varies from holistic health/wellness, perinatal, and pediatric to emergent and urgent problems
Characteristics: Varied specialties to choose from, regular hours, less stress than inpatient settings, collegial relationships
Client age group: All ages, depends on targeted population
Drawbacks: Brief patient contacts, medical model versus nursing-based model of practice
Desirable skills: Phlebotomy, IV therapy, ECG, triage and telephone advice, teaching, communication skills, autonomy and independence
Education: RN with AD, diploma, or BSN
Employers: Ambulatory providers such as surgicenters, primary care offices, HMOs, clinics, special procedure and mobile health units, colleges, universities, home health agencies, day care centers, homeless shelters, the military, retirement communities
Community Health Nurse
Holistic Nurse
Also known as Parish Nursing, Parrish, Congregational Nursing or Church Nursing. The goal is to provide for the health needs of individuals, families, and groups in pastoral setting; with emphasis of spiritual health and well being.
Faith Community Nurse
Provides health interventions in the patient home setting; usually after hospital discharge for patients with complex and chronic illnesses.
Home Health Nurse
Occupational Health Nurse
Provides for the health needs in a private residence setting, may work as a freelance or part of a company; usually private pay patients rather insured
Private Duty Nurse
Responds to the physical, psychological, spiritual, and social concerns of patients with AIDS; cares for chronically ill and dying with numerous clinical manifestations.
Provides care people's genetic health - those with genetic problems - including screening, early detection, risk identification, treatment, and testing for diseases like Huntington disease, hereditary breast cancer, and spinocerebellar atrophy, cystic fibrosis, neuromuscular diseases
Provides care with emphasis on the integration of a person's mind, body, and spirit with the their environment
Occupational health nursing combines concepts of public health and nursing theory in an orientation toward primary prevention or keeping healthy workers healthy and includes managing workers' compensation records, assisting in meeting the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), conducting environmental surveillance for health hazards, providing direct nursing care to employees, promoting health education, and counseling employees.
Inpatient
Nursing

Gastroenterology/Endoscopy Nurse
Infection Control Nurse
Intravenous Therapy Nurse
Enterostomal Therapy Nurse
Adult Gerontology NP
Family NP
Adult NP
Pediatric NP
Family Psychiatric NP
Healthcare Informatics
Pediatric Nursing Leadership
Women's Health Care
Midwife
Leadership and Administration
Provides comprehensive care to children, adolescents, and their families in various settings. Responds to the physical and psychosocial aspects of health and illness, concern for health promotion and disease prevention, management of physical and mental disabilities, and response to acute and chronic illness
Diagnoses: Acute and chronic problems such as upper and lower respiratory infections; ear, nose, and throat infections; asthma; growth and development problems
Employers: Hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, community, and home care agencies
Drawbacks: Lack of patient cooperation, patient grief, paperwork and policies, bureaucracy, stress, ethical conflicts, and pressure
Characteristics: Direct patient care and relationships, autonomy and independent functioning, teaching, making a difference, teamwork
Client age group: Newborn to adolescence
Desirable skills: People skills, empathy, love of children, flexibility, stress management
Practice roles: Staff nurse, clinical nurse specialist, nurse practitioner, case manager, supervisor, nurse manager
Pediatric Nursing
The goals of public health nurses are to monitor the spread of disease, keep vigilant watch for environmental hazards, educate the community on how to care for and treat themselves, and train for community disasters
Public Health Nurse
School nursing is a specialized practice of professional nursing that advances the well being, academic success, and life-long achievement of students. To that end, school nurses facilitate positive student responses to normal development; promote health and safety; intervene with actual and potential health problems; provide case management services; and actively collaborate with others to build student and family capacity for adaptation, self management, self advocacy, and learning
School Nurse
Provides nursing care with a focus on the utmost care of the critically ill or unstable patients. Critical care nurses can be found working in a wide variety of environments and specialties, such as emergency departments and the intensive care units
Critical Care Nurse
Trauma nursing involves responding quickly to a wide variety of single- and multisystem trauma including major burn injury. The trauma nurse must respond with decisiveness and clarity to unexpected events by assessing, intervening, and stabilizing patients about whom there is minimal information.
Burn/Trauma Nurse
Provides for the surgical patient’s needs, by assessing, planning, and implementing nursing care patient receives preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. Nursing activities performed by the perioperative nurse include patient assessment, creating and maintaining a sterile and safe environment, preoperative and postoperative teaching, monitoring physiologic and psychological status, integration and coordination of care across settings and among disciplines, patient advocacy, and efficient provision of resources
OR Nurse
Cares for women, infants, and their families from the onset of pregnancy through the first month of the newborn’s life (perinatal period); monitors the pregnancy; assesses the progression of labor, monitors the status of mother and baby, maintains a sense of calm and comfort during labor, and supports the family; fosters the new mother-infant relationship, teaches parenting skills, and assesses and supports the mother in her recovery from childbirth; evaluates the newborn’s early adjustment to life
OB (Obstetric) Nurse
Cares for recipient and living-donor patients throughout the transplantation process from end-stage disease to preoperative to intraoperative experience to aftercare and long-term follow up
Transplant Nurse
Cares for the actual and potential health problems related to musculoskeletal function; relies on a holistic approach in their assessment of the impact of musculoskeletal conditions on self-care, patient management of the environment, available patient resources, and support systems
Orthopedic Nurse
NP vs PA
Medical/physician model:
Disease centered

General BS required

Trained as generalists in the primary care

Approx 1000 didactic hrs and over 2000 clinical hrs

Practice under MD or DO
no prescriptive
authority
Medical/ Nursing model:
Biopsychosocial centered

Requires Nursing BS

A specialty-training track


Approx 500 didactic hrs and 500-700 clinical hrs

Independent practice
with prescriptive authority
PhD
Doctor of Philosophy
DNP
Doctorate of Nursing Practice
Practice
leaders in advanced
clinical practice to disseminate knowledge
Academic
leaders utilizing evidence based practices in nursing education and/or focusing on designing and testing of nursing education interventions.
Objectives: Prepare expert nursing education researchers and scholars who are prepared to add to the body of knowledge and utilize evidence based practices in nursing education settings
Objectives: Prepare nurse specialists at the highest level of advanced practice who will lead in applying and translating research into practice
Evidenced
Based
Practice
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