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The Solar System

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Jonathan Knickerbocker

on 13 December 2012

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Transcript of The Solar System

Sun-Earth-Moon The Solar system 1. Earth's Rotation 2. Seasons 3. Moon phases 5. Tides 4. Eclipses Introduction Our Earth is spherical Season are caused by the combination of the tilt of the Earth's axis and the Earth's movement around the sun. How do you see the moon at night?
What is the mechanism that shows the moon in the night Sky? There are two types of Eclipses
Solar and Lunar Tides are the rising and falling of the ocean. Our solar system is made up of Sun, 8 planets
and the moons. Also our solar system contains
asteroids, meteoroids and comets. What is our solar system? Does does the word "Universe" mean to you? How is our solar system different or similar to the universe? The universe is commonly defined as the totality of existence of everything, including planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter and energy Our solar system is not the only system in the universe, rather there many different solar system. So imagine this you are on a beach:
our solar system is only one grain of sand
Every thing on the beach and around the beach is the universe!!!!! It rotates on an imaginary axis that passes through the North Pole, the center of the Earth and the South Pole This axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees The direction of the rotation is always
west to east but the Sun, Moon, stars and planets
move east to west Review: Can you feel the Earth's rotation? The Earth takes about 24 hours to complete one rotation or one day What causes the earth to have days and night? Because off the rotation of the Earth, we experience days and nights Where would expect the earth to be the hottest and the coldest spots on the Earth? Why would you say that or what causes that? Some countries like Korea will experience the four seasons of:
Summer
Winter
Fall
Spring The Earth's tilt causes some parts of the Earth to receive more sunlight than others Depending on the tilt , the area facing the sun more directly will receive and absorb more of the sun energy. Where the other areas will reflect the sun energy Reviewing your Social Studies How many Hemisphere does Earth have and what are they called? What important lines (longitude/latitude) on the Globe divides the hemispheres? The Earth has four Hemispheres
The northern Hemisphere
The southern Hemisphere
The western Hemisphere
The Eastern Hemisphere For this class we will need to focus on the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. The equator divides the North from the South The Prime meridian divides the west from the east. Both of these lines play an important role determining the seasons on the our planet? Additionally there are also two very important latitude lines on our planet? The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn each lie at 23.5 degrees latitude. Do you know what causes seasons? How or why does the tilt of the Earth causes the seasons? A If the Earth did not have a tilt, what you expect to happen? Remember that the tilt of the Earth is fixed and does not change as it goes around the sun. When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun, it's Winter. The Southern Hemisphere will be in summer. Is looking and observing the moon important to you? Why? Why did the people in the past observe the moon? The moon in the past was a way to keep track of time (farming, weather), seasons and a calendar. The moon does not produce it own light,
rather it reflects the sun light. Since the moon orbits the Earth and we can only see the reflection on the sun lights, it give the moon different shapes or phases of the moon Key Terminology for Moon Phases: Because of the fact that the Moon takes an average of 29.5 days (not 28 days as most people think) to orbit the earth we can have either 12 or 13 full moons in a year. In the case where we have a 13th full moon in a year (2 full moons in one month) the second full moon in the same month is called a “Blue Moon”. Waning Moon is used to describe the period of the Moon as it moves from a Full Moon to a New Moon, decreasing in illumination. Waxing Moon is used to describe the period of the Moon as it moves from a New Moon to a Full Moon, increasing in illumination The reflection of the sun light is also know as illumination. Waning Crescent is partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is decreasing. Last Quarter is one-half of the Moon appears illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is decreasing Waning Gibbous is less than fully but more than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is decreasing. Full Moon is fully illuminated by direct sunlight. Waxing Gibbous is more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is increasing. Three days before the Full Moon. First Quarter is one-half of the Moon appears illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is increasing. Waxing Crescent is partly but less than one-half illuminated and the illuminated part is increasing. New Moon is not illuminated by direct sunlight. In order to have any eclipses the positioning
of the moon, sun and Earth needs to be correct. Key terminology The umbra and penumbra are the names given
to three distinct parts of a shadow, created by any light source. The umbra (Latin for "shadow") is the innermost and darkest part of a shadow, where the light source is completely blocked by the occluding body. An observer in the umbra experiences a total eclipse. The penumbra is the region in which only a portion of the light source is obscured by the occluding body. An observer in the penumbra experiences a partial eclipse. When the A lunar eclipse is caused by the shadow of the earth falling on the moon. The position would be the sun, earth and moon A solar eclipse happens when the moon block the path of the sun on the earth causing a shadow The position is the Sun, Moon and Earth A lunar eclipse can only happen 2 times
in a year or one complete revolution of the earth The moon revolves around the earth about a 5 degree path, so it will either go under and over the aline path. The moon rotates around the earth at about 29.5 days and there is a new moon 12 to 13 times a year. Why don't we have a lunar and solar eclipse every month? Tides are caused by the gravitational forces of the moon and the sun This force attracts the ocean to bulge out toward s the moon. Another bulge occurs at the opposite side As the earth rotates faster than the moon revolves, each place on the Earth passes through two high tides each day. The phases of the moon can indicate a high tide and a low tide When it is a New moon or a Full moon, the gravitational forces of the moon and the sun are combined, causing the tides to be very high and very low. This is known as spring tides When it's the first quarter and last quarter phases, the effects of the gravitational forces of the sun and the moon cancel each other, causing the tides to be almost the same, with no difference Why are tides important? Tides are important because they create tidal streams that circulate the ocean, bring fresh foods and water to other areas. Tides also create a great ecology at the beach as different living things need to adapt to high tides and low tides. Knowledge of tides gave countries defensive measures of navel ships and how to fish certain areas.
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