Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Criminology

Research and criminal justice goverance class presentation on program for exiting prisoners with intellectual or mental impairment
by

Jennifer Anne

on 7 October 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Criminology

$
program logic
if ... then
reinvestment
the case for
evaluation
outcomes
short term
long term
medium term
outputs
inputs
what we invest
activities
context/mechanism
make clear the limitations, context and process by which the outcomes have been effected, as they relate to the outcome under measurement
outside the box
the 'outside the box' program proposes a solution to this problem:
supported accommodation, tailored transition assistance and life planning for people with a disability who are, or at risk of becoming, involved in the criminal justice system
assumptions
external factors
in large part because of the problems that released prisoners face in re-establishing themselves in the community when they return. The problems include unstable and inappropriate accommodation, lack of vocational skills leading to high levels of unemployment and the absence of legitimate forms of income, reject by their family and friends, lack of access to mainstream health and social services. The ultimate consequences of failing to make the transition back into the mainstream community include injury or death, mainly from drugs, re-offending and further imprisonment”.
transition to community for prisoners with mental impairment, disorder or disability
program logic map
law reform creating longer, tougher sentences - increased likelihood of imprisonment
GFC - fewer resources available to social welfare programs
increase in 'infringeable' offences, coupled with tougher enforcement of fines - increase financial burden
how we will know it is the program and not something else?
36.9% were returned to prison
44.8% were returned to corrective services
“[it is] clear that being imprisoned is itself a factor that leads to imprisonment,
Effective interventions – that is interventions that can reduce the frequency and severity of re-offending- will provide very real public benefits. Further, interventions that address the risk factors for re-offending will deliver benefits beyond the criminal justice system, with a reduced burden on the health, welfare and public housing systems.
unsurprisingly, offenders with disability are likely to re-offend sooner and with more frequency that those without
mental impairment can operate itself as a further barrier to achieving transition relevant conditions such as housing stability, employment and broader participation in social activities.
The public burden of this re-offending is realised as the cost of law enforcement and (re)incarceration, and the explicit and implicit costs of crime to victims and communities.
program participants
control
group
compare
x+y=
t
1
t
2
key measures
before
and
after
program participation
results evaluation
benefits
At 30 June 2011 there were 4,737 prisoners in Victorian gaols.

In 2009-10 there were 5,897 new custodial sentences, and 5,619 prisoners released, either conditionally, including on parole, or unconditionally having served the term of their sentence.
The Council of Australian Governments reports that average real net operating expenditure per prisoner per day in 2010-11 was $257.35, while average real net operating expenditure per Community Corrections offender per day in 2010-11 was $21.22.
Of the Victorian prisoners released during 2008-09, within 2 years:
Source: Victorian Department of Justice (13 July 2012) http://www.justice.vic.gov.au/home/prisons/research+and+statistics/corrections+statistics+faqs
participants
custom built 8 bed facility
intra-agency facilities including other supported accommodation (40 beds), clinicians, case-workers meeting and consultation rooms
inter-agency partnership and referral relationships
community integration
housing stability
managed health & wellbeing
employment
reduced recidivism
'Life skills' course
'One Plan' development
Vocational training
Brokerage / referral
provision of medical care / treatment
Provision of supported accommodation
'Exit plan' development
'One Plan' developed
Program exited according to 'Exit Plan'
'Life skills' course completed
independent social activity undertaken
AOD treatment / program completed
post program treatment plan developed
vocational training commenced / completed
Job Network Provider client
application / commencement on Centrelink benefits
Clients, according to program eligibility criteria:
prison leavers
male
21 years or over
diagnosed mental cognitive impairment, mental illness or disorder
$ - funding allocated in State budget
staff
agency expertise
O
1
O
1
O
2
O
2
nature of post- program accommodation
frequency of address change post- program
participation in employment, including voluntary employment
participation in formal social/community activities
meaningful relationships (establishment and nature of) – self assessment pre and post program
pre-program history of vocational training (commencement and completion) versus post - vocational training (commencement and completion)
pre-program history of employment versus post-program employment status
intake assessment versus assessment on program exit
self assessment at intake versus self assessment at exit (confidence in ability to self manage health issues)
frequency of hospitalisation for pre-identified chronic health issues (pre- and post- program)
time to first offence (arrest)
frequency of offending
actuarial risk (predictive) vs actual rates of offending: i.e. Lindsay and Beail (2004) model
measures for outcomes
housing stability
health and wellbeing
reduced recidivism
social integration
employment
Source: Melbourne Criminology Research and Evaluation Report: Bridging the Gap: A release transition support program for Victorian prisoners Final Evaluation Report (August 2003)
outside the box
in large part because of the problems that released prisoners face in re-establishing themselves in the community when they return. The problems include unstable and inappropriate accommodation, lack of vocational skills leading to high levels of unemployment and the absence of legitimate forms of income, reject by their family and friends, lack of access to mainstream health and social services. The ultimate consequences of failing to make the transition back into the mainstream community include injury or death, mainly from drugs, re-offending and further imprisonment”. (bridging the gap report).
transition to community for prisoners with mental impairment, disorder or disability
36.9% were returned to prison
44.8% were returned to corrective services
“[it is] clear that being imprisoned is itself a factor that leads to imprisonment,
it is estimated that between X and X % of the prison population has moderate to severe mental impairment, disorder or disability
offenders with disability are likely to re-offend sooner and with more frequency that those without
The transition from prison to community for prisoners with mental impairment, disability or disorder is even more complicated.
Mental impairment can operate as a further barrier to achieving transition relevant conditions such as housing stability, employment and broader participation in social activities.
The public burden of this re-offending is realised as the cost of law enforcement and (re)incarceration, and the explicit and implicit costs of crime to victims and communities.
program participants
control
group
compare
x+y=
t
1
t
2
was the program implemented as designed?
how might this be measured?
At 30 June 2011 there were 4,737 prisoners in Victorian gaols.

In 2009-10 there were 5,897 new custodial sentences, and 5,619 prisoners released, either conditionally, including on parole, or unconditionally having served the term of their sentence.
Of the Victorian prisoners released during 2008-09, within 2 years:
O
1
O
2
Source: Melbourne Criminology Research and Evaluation Report: Bridging the Gap: A release transition support program for Victorian prisoners Final Evaluation Report (August 2003)
O
1
O
2
the observed outcomes for
program participants
against an appropriate
control group
"treatment"
Transitional Housing Management - Corrective Housing Pathways Initiative (Victoria) evaluated by the Forensic Psychology Program Deakin University (June 2004) Final Report of the Implementation of Victoria's pilot Transitional Housing Management - Corrective Housing Pathways Initiative (THM-CHPI)
objective
context
existing services for prison leavers are not designed to service the complex and specific needs of offenders with cognitive or mental health needs
existing social services and programs for people with intellectual impairment or disability do not have the capacity to deal with the unique issues arising from the fact of imprison for this group. Often offenders will be explicitly excluded from services, either because of their history of offending or because of co-morbid drug or alcohol use
service gap
multiple complex needs
agency expertise in offender group
will it work? conceptual evaluation
assumptions/theoretical basis
Routine Activity Theory posits that incidences of crime will increase in situations where potential offenders and targets of crime come into contact in the absence of adequate guardians (Cohen and Felson 1979)

RAT explains how people's lifestyles and social context affect criminal behavior.

Factors like employment, engagement with the education system and the nature social activities are key examples.

The creation and facilitation of routines and certain types of social interaction are designed to limit the chances of re-offending.

For example RAT has been used in addressing the problem of high burglary rates caused by truant youths (Boetig 2006). It has also been applied to the issue of high crime rates in Indigenous communities (Snowball and Weatherburn 2008)
If offenders have secure and supported accommodation immediately post release, then they are in a better position to address other complex needs that in turn support them to avoid future offending and imprisonment. Longer term, if offenders with mental impairment have stable and safe accommodation then they are less likely to come into contact with the criminal justice system. Offenders who are assisted to find housing are better able to achieve housing stability
Programs that operate to support an offender to strategically 'step down' from the highly structured institutional prison environment to unstructured and independent life in community are more likely to result in better and longer term social integration and desistence from re-offending
1
2
3
offenders engage in an intensive program of structured activities teaching life skills
they frequency, severity and fact of re-offending is reduced
then
if
exiting prisoners engage in holistic, integrated, graduated, transition activity
& planning
if
then
they are more likely to acquire the skills and conditions that support community integration, and ultimately, reduce offending
offenders are provided with housing brokerage services
they are more likely secure stable accommodation
then
if
evidence base
evidence base
evidence base
the Department of Justice reports that mental illness is 3-5 times more prevalent in prisons than in the community, with the prevalence of schizophrenia being almost ten times greater in the prison populations than in the community
how services are delivered can be as important as what services are delivered
'Floating care' and 'through care' models.
Research now supports the notion that aftercare should commence before release (see Travis 2000). Programs based on 'floating care' models have been shown to be effective in reducing harm and recidivism for post-release prisoners with AOD issues. It is theorised that the success observed in the AOD field will be replicated in relation to prisoners with mental impairment
Place-based and person-centric case-management.
Programs that are designed to address a participant's whole-of-life needs through centralised brokerage, on-location and coordinated services have been shown to be effective in reducing the risks for re-offending and minimising other harm to an offender and the community. At the same time, overlap and duplication is avoided, increasing the cost-effectiveness of this model of service delivery.
programs
US Department of Justice funded Re-entry Partnership Initiatives in eight sites. Evaluated Byrne et al. (2002)
National Institute of Corrections' Transition from Prison to Community Initiative. Evaluated Dale Parent (2004)
Victorian Office of the Correctional Services Commissioner Bridging the Gap program. Evaluated by Ross et al (2003)
Victoria's pilot Transitional Housing Management - Corrective Housing Pathways Initiative (THM-CHPI). Evaluated Bartholomew et al (2004)
evaluated
References
Partner agencies
residential period of 3-6 months
complex needs
what works: the evidence base for case-management, integrated care models, stepped down planning and whole of person service
A new approach
addressing a service gap
based on evidence of best practice, grounded in theory
realistic, planned, reviewable
designed to deliver achievable, measurable outcomes
creating public value
direct observation
case-file review
interview with workers and participants
reverse engineered process mapping
control group will be selected using the Lindsay and Beail risk assessment model to proportionally mirror the risk profile of the program participants
because the program size is small (16-32 participants per year) statistically relevant changes in recidivism rates cannot be accurately demonstrated over the first three years of operation.
the causative nature of the program must be understood
But: benefits need not be limited to gaol costs avoided
reduced recidivism
: savings arise the in form of prison place not taken up, and the avoidance of cost to community and victim of crime

more efficient medial treatment
: savings arise in the form of reduction in treatment duration (i.e. hospitalisation) due to on-site care leading to early detection and comprehensive medical history availability

post program reduction in medical care
due to development and adherence to increased self management of chronic health issues
input
costs
output
outcome
reduce the cost of harm to and crime by high risk offenders with mental or cognitive impairment
Full transcript