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Innovative ELT Practices

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Carlos OSpina

on 4 October 2013

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Transcript of Innovative ELT Practices

Innovative
collaborative


learning

Constructivist
approach

Distance
Learning

E-learning
Flexible

learning

Language

Awareness

Learner
Autonomy

Motivation and
language learning

Self-access
language learning

2.  What are different types of motivation?
Integrative motivation  
Instrumental motivation
 
Integrative Motivation
The wish to operate socially in the community and become one of its members
The desire to identify closely with the target language group
Distinction
Integrative Motivation


The desire to identify with and integrate into the target-language culture
Instrumental Motivation


The wish to learn the language for the purpose of study or career promotion
Effort refers to the time spent studying the language and the drive of the learner
Desire indicates how much the learner wants to become proficient in the language
Affect illustrates the learner's emotional reactions with regard to language study
3.  What are the elements of motivation?
The main role
5. What is the role of the teacher in second language learning?
The teacher
helps to remove the biggest language learning obstacles from the learners
creates conditions conducive to language learning success
listens to the students with empathy
provides them with the support
3 attitudinal qualities of a teacher to assist the learning process
empathy
seeing things from the students' view point
authenticity
being yourself
acceptance
of students' ideas and opinions
7. What are the ways to improve motivation?
Journals
a two-way 'conversation' between the individual student and the teacher.
Using photos

Music
a source for highly motivating activities
Music - acceptance
Functions:
to create a learning environment
to build listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing skills
to increase vocabulary
to expand cultural knowledge
References
Burstall, C., Jamieson, M., Cohen, S. & Hargreaves, M. (1974). Primary French in the balance. Slough: NFER Publishing Co.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold (p.10).       
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Gardner, R.C., & Lambert, W.E. (1959).  Motivational variables in second language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology: 13.
Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., Stern, H.H. and Todesco, A. (1978). The Good Language Learner. Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
Soanes.C.( Ed) (2004) The New Pocket Oxford Dictionary ,New Delhi: Oxford University Press.(pp.587)      





Motivation in second language learning
Buchko Olga
Odessa National Maritime Academy
2007
"Motivation is as much an effect as a cause of learning." Ausubel
1. What is meant by the term motivation?
Pocket Oxford English Dictionary: motivation is
1. The reason or reasons behind one’s actions or behavior
2. Enthusiasm
1. What is meant by the term motivation?
Gardner, English psychologist:
“the individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity”  
Instrumental Motivation
The wish to learn the language for the purpose of study or career promotion
The desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the study of a second language
4.  What are characteristics of motivated learners?
Positive task orientation
Ego involvement
Need for achievement
High aspirations
Goal orientation
Perseverance (firmness)
Tolerance of ambiguity
6. What are the ways to improve motivation?
Journals - empathy
Functions:
to communicate effectively in English
not to worry too much about mistakes
Using photos - authenticity
Functions:
to increase students' interest levels
to spark genuine interest
to generate a lot of language
9 Reasons Why You Should Use Songs
to Teach English
as a Foreign Language
1. Songs almost always contain authentic, natural language.
2. A variety of new vocabulary can be introduced to students through songs.
3. Songs are usually very easily obtainable.
4. Songs can be selected to suit the needs and interests of the students.
5. Grammar and cultural aspects can be introduced through songs.
6. Time length is easily controlled.
7. Students can experience a wide range of accents.
8. Song lyrics can be used in relating to situations of the world around us.
9. Students think songs are natural and fun.
Six key questions:
1. What is meant by the term motivation?
2. What are different types of motivation?
3. What are the elements of motivation?
4. What are the characteristics of motivated learners?
5. What is the role of the teacher in English learning?
6. What are the ways to improve motivation?  
Motivation in students from 5 countries
Keeping the End in Mind!
National Standards
Communication
Cultures
Connections
Comparisons
Communities
Supporting E-Portfolios
Technical Assistance
Platforms (how to choose and use)
PowerPoint
Blogs and Wikis
Dreamweaver / Contribute
Flash
Document production (digital audio and video)
Conceptual Assistance
Supplement work with advisor
Workshops on purpose, development, and use
On the Net
mll.richmond.edu
Click on “Senior Portfolios”
Click on “Multimedia Language Lab”
oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/context
oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/ intertextes
sscinica@richmond.edu
Fostering Learner Autonomy:
The Role of the
Language Resource Center
Sharon Scinicariello University of Richmond, VA USA UNTELE 2004
Need for learner autonomy
5.1: Students use the language both within and beyond the school setting.
5.2: Students show evidence of becoming life-long learners by using the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment.
Language Learning Center
Activities
Configuration
Materials and Equipment
Staffing
Other Factors
Needs to Meet
Linguistic
Active use of authentic materials
Metacognitive
Knowledge about learning and about language learning
Psychological
Motivation and positive attitude
Social
Collaborative learning
LRC Activities: Faculty
Raising awareness of concepts
Faculty support and trust
Curricular integration
Plan and support activities to develop autonomy
Materials organization
Materials development
Contextes, Intertextes
LRC Activities: Learners
Workshops and peer assistance
Raising awareness of concepts
Use of available tools
Support for learning management
Assistance with goals and planning
Assistance with self-monitoring
Support for reflective learning
Conceptual and technical support for logs and e-portfolios
The Physical LRC
Computers with multilingual tools
Whiteboards
Cameras, camcorders, sound recording, scanners, digitizing tools
Screening room
Individual viewing stations
Gaming stations
Human and printed assistance
The Virtual LRC
Tools for communication (Blackboard, MOO)
Tools for reflection (Blogs, E-portfolios)
Tools for collaboration (Blackboard, MOO, Communal Blogs, Wikis)
Tools for self-awareness
Tools for planning and implementation
Organization of links by needs, themes
Staff
Professional staff and student staff
Requirements
All must understand and support the development of autonomy
All must be able to move beyond technical assistance to support for LRC activities
Staff development
Workshops and discussion sessions
Continuing evaluation and feedback
Other Factors
Coordination with curricula
LRC Steering Committee
Support of other University units
Information Services
Library
Funding authorities
Coordination with other LRC activities
Placement testing
Electronic classroom
Fostering E-Portfolios
Case for “portfolio thinking”
van Lier “Quality cannot be measured by test scores.”
Promoting reflection and autonomy
National / International movement
Move from summative to formative
Move from junior/senior specialists to all learners
Move from analog to digital
Two Questions
Does the Language Resource Center have a role?
All instructional experiences should reinforce curricular goals
How can the role be defined and implemented?
Why these questions?
The need to foster learner autonomy
The need to redefine the LRC
Changing needs
Changing expectations
Justify space, budget, and staff
Autonomy and Curricular Goals
Transformation of students into life-long learners
Language learning requires time
Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century
Language =“channel for learning”
3.1: Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language.
3.2: Students acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign language and its culture.
Redefining the LRC
Role of LRC (faculty and learners)
Support classroom instruction
Access to materials and equipment
Develop materials
Technical assistance
Support independent learning
Absorption into Library and/or Information Services
Evaluating Success
More faculty and learners using the LRC (physical and virtual)
More learners requesting access to broader range of materials
Greater awareness of how materials can be used to continue learning
E-portfolios for all learners
Awareness of use for planning and reflection
Desired Attitudes and Behaviors
Choose activities and materials based on learning goals
Use linguistic tools effectively
Reflect on their learning in logs and e-portfolios
Provide feedback on LRC’s materials and activities
Participate in learning opportunities beyond coursework
LRC Configuration
Move away from “materials distribution / help desk” mode
No more service counter
Assistants in the midst of the LRC
Individual spaces for reflection
Collaborative spaces for social interaction
Technology available but not focus of space
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
European experience
The approach, in which schools give place to work on languages they do not teach, is not really new.
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
Concept of Language Awareness
It is:
To be aware of LANGUAGE through different languages
Comparing languages
It is not:
Study of L1 (mother tongue)
Study of other languages
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
Janua Linguarum – Gateway of Languages
A logo imitating a gateway of languages -title of Comenius’s work from 1631
study of different languages makes language learning easier
It gives way to other attitudes and knowledge
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
JALING fits lower primary curriculum
as an introduction to foreign language learning (starts in grade 4),
or
as a parallel, supporting programme for foreign language practice when it is taught at this educational stage.
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
Language awareness-
Should children learn about many different languages?
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
What do we mean by
„language awareness” ?
An approach which brings every pupil into contact with a broad range of different-status languages, and links discovery techniques with them.
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
Introduction of language awareness into the curriculum
Advocates of this approach aim at publicising it so that it is given more attention in the curriculum (from kindergarten to secondary education).
This multilingual approach helps to prepare children better for life in linguistically and culturally diverse communities.
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
Why language awareness?
The aim is to give pupils a positive attitude to language diversity (including minority, immigrant and regional languages) and to help them develop metalinguisitc skills which they can then apply to language learning ( at school and outside)
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
Language awareness in other countries...
Great Britain in 1980’s (first advocated by Eric Hawkins)
Switzerland – applied in the EOLE programme
Germany (in connection with Comenius)
France (+ 5 other European countries)– since 1997 the EVLANG programme (supported by Socrates/Lingua)
 
 
Magdalena Szpotowicz –
10th IATEFL Poland Conference
Discussion
How do you see this component being implemented in your subject i.e. English classes?
Flexible Learning
in the
Roger Stack: Flexible Learning Facilitator
Tasmanian Polytechnic
Version 1.1
Role of Flexible Learning Facilitator
Tasmanian Polytechnic
Support educators
enable, engage, empower
teachers, trainers, leaders, managers…
Support learners
enable, engage, empower
adult learners; on and off campus
Promote flexible learning
all learners, educators in Polytechnic
options, accreditation, documentation
Facilitate Communities of Practice
voice, reflection, connection
Research and development of FL
partnerships, innovation
Gateways to FL
Flexible Learning is about

personalised learning
learner centred; folios; PLNs; LMSs
learning organisations
communities of practice; learning centres; partnerships
pathway planning
partnerships; flexible entry/exit
holistic assessment
assessment for, of and as learning; self/peer assessment
FL Support & Projects
7. FL Resource Development

Working with Resource Development Manager
Locating existing resources for FL and CoP
Creating needed resources for FL and CoP

8. Student Voice

Social and educational networking
Journals
Forums
Definition of FL
Flexible learning provides learners with choices about where, when, and how learning occurs.

Flexible learning provides educators with choices about curriculum, teaching and assessment for effectiveness, efficiency, excellence…
Gateways to FL
Flexible Learning is about

learning technologies
e-learning; m-learning; blended learning
digital capture, channels, feeds
connected learning
social learning; digital identity
collaboration
responsive curriculum
flexible training packages; curriculum frameworks; transdisciplinary learning; state, national and global education agenda
life-long learning
formal & informal, RPL & RCC
Gateways to FL
Flexible Learning is about

reflective dialogue
face-to-face; online; documented; connected
new media
student-directed learning
learning to learn; meta-cognition; reflection
choices about what learning and who teaches
flexible delivery
access multi-modal resources; annexes; outreach
team teaching
coaching/mentoring
business, community, past-students
cognitive coaching
FL Facilitator - Strategies
Listening - Dialogue
current practice, needs, future directions
key conversations with managers, leaders, co-ordinators
facilitating Communities of Practice
Support - Projects
state-wide, campus, teams, groups, individuals
key projects
Networking - Research
local, national, global
partnerships
Teaching/Mentoring/Coaching
students – teachers – managers/leaders
FL Support & Projects
1. Personalised Learning

E-Folios – learner controlled access
Self-directed learning
Learning management – open and closed

2. Connected Learning

Personal Learning Networks – PLNs
Journals, micro-journaling, ‘web 2.0’
Professional and social online identity
FL Support & Projects
3. Flexible Assessment

Assessment, for, of and as learning
Self and peer assessment
Automated assessment

4. Learning Organisation

Connected communities of practice – local & global
‘Agile’ learning
Blended physical, online and virtual environments
FL Support & Projects
5. Learning Technologies

Affordances & possibilities
Blended learning & M-learning
Serious games

6. Education Partnerships

Leading practice – “best for the world”
Projects
Research and innovation
Learning models will need to change
INDUSTRIAL AGE
LEARNING MODEL
DIGITAL AGE
LEARNING MODEL
How do people learn in a digital environment?
Is e-learning effective?
Are learners ready?
New learning model are needed
WHAT IS E-LEARNING?
e-Learning is the use of technology to enable people to learn anytime and anywhere.
ICT and e-learning offers opportunity to raise educational standards in schools
Large range of ICT tools are available for teaching and learning
Closes the gap of “Digital Divide”
Involvement of teachers and parents is important
Schools will need funding, access and training
In other words
E-LEARNING
EVI SOFIAATI
IMELDA
RIYANTI SISWODIHARJO
LUNGGUH HALIRA VONTI
Convenient
self-service (mix and match)
on-demand (anytime, anywhere)
private learning
self-paced
flexibility: (modular package)
Media-rich
Easier to understand & more engaging
Repeatable
As many times as you like
Easier to monitor progress
less administrative work
can be more precise
In order to make the application of e-learning is effective there are four factors that
we should take into consideration. The four factors are:
1. Learner.
2. Learning materials.
3. Learning atmosphere.
4. Technology.
Chat
Synchronous communication tool:
Students
Parents
Colleagues
More student participation
Collaborative learning
Online Forum
Synchronous discussions
Group discussions
Questions and requests for students to comment
Community participation
Collaborative learning
Feedbacks from diverse culture
Live lecture supported by audio, chat and whiteboard
Communication with students & parents
Sharing of applications
Recordable and reusable lectures
Demo
Video Conference
E-LEARNING FOR A GREENER WORLD
Traditional & E-learning Approach
Time and cost saving

E-learning can overcome the limitations of times, distances, and resources.
E-learning is defined by some experts in two ways. First, it includes all kind s of the
utilization of ICT in instruction. Second, it is limited to the use of intranet and internet in teaching-learning process.
E-mail
Every teacher should have an e-mail account
Communicate with students , parents & colleagues
Send & receive students’ assignment
Encourage a paperless environment
Work efficiently & effectively
WEB
Wide range of available teaching resources
Sharing of resources
Supported by images, audio, simulation and multimedia
Traditional & E-learning Approach
Piaget
Vygotsky
Developmental
psychology
Cooperative Learning
v. Other Forms of Learning
Cooperative learning is just one form of classroom/student learning structure.
Other forms include:
Individualized (criterion-based grading system)
Competitive (norm-based grading system)
Cooperative learning is perhaps the most important of the three types of learning situations, yet it is the least used (<20% time).
Cooperative learning cf collaborative learning.
Cooperative Learning
Ideas for Effective Classroom Practice
Cooperative Learning
in the Physics Classroom
The presentation is based upon the “Learning Together” model developed by Johnson, D., Johnson, R. & Holubec, E. (1988). Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
Several other models exist (e.g., Slavin), but the above model is perhaps the most applicable to physics teaching.
Cooperative Learning:
Definitions & Traits
Cooperation -- working together to accomplish shared goals
Cooperative Learning -- the instructional use of small groups wherein students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning
Common Elements:
shared learning goals -- desired future state in which the students demonstrate as a group and individually a mastery of the subject studied
goal structure -- specifies the ways in which students will interact with each other and the teacher during the instructional session
Not all group learning is cooperative learning.
groups arguing over divisive conflicts and power struggles
a member sits quietly, too shy to participate
one member does the work, while the other members talk about sports
no one does the work because the one who normally works the hardest doesn’t want to be a sucker
a more talented member may come up with all the answers, dictate to the group, or work separately, ignoring other group members
Effective Cooperation
…does not occur by chance.
…can not be based on the assumption that all students possess good social and learning skills.
…occurs when the essential components required for each cooperative activity are ensured.
Learning Together:
Essential Components
Positive Interdependence
Students have two responsibilities:
learn the assigned material
ensure that all members of the group learn the material
Each student should see his or her contribution as essential for group success.
each student makes unique contribution
Interdependence occurs when students cannot succeed unless all their group members also succeed.
Structuring interdependence: common goal, joint rewards, divided resources, complimentary roles
Individual Accountability
Teacher must assess (directly or indirectly) how much effort each member is contributing to the group’s work.
Teacher must provide feedback to groups and individual students.
Teacher must help groups avoid redundant efforts by members.
Teacher must ensure that every member is responsible for the final outcome.
Group Processing
n.b: At the end of the process, students reflect to determine which member actions were helpful and which were harmful.
Students then make decisions about which actions to continue, change, or delete.
Such processing allows groups to:
focus on maintaining good working relationships.
learn and improve cooperative skills.
provide feedback on member participation.
think at a metacognitive level as well as cognitive level.
celebrate success of the group.
Social Skills
Students must get to know and trust one another.
Students must communicate accurately and unambiguously.
Students must accept and support each other.
Students must resolve conflicts constructively.
Face-to-Face Interaction
Successful interaction occurs as a result of positive interdependence.
To maximize opportunity for success:
keep groups small (2 - 6 students)
keep groups heterogeneous within, homogeneous without
assist students with guidelines for interaction:
acceptance, support, trust, respect
exchange of information
motivation
What’s the difference?
Cooperative Group Traditional Group
Positive interdependence No interdependence
Individual accountability No individual accountability
Heterogeneous membership Homogeneous membership
Shared leadership One leader
Responsible to each other Responsibly only for self
Task Only task emphasized
Social skills directly taught Skills assumed or ignored
Teacher observes Teacher ignores groups
Group processing occurs No group processing
Mutual assistance Competitive
The Advisability of Using
Cooperative Learning
Works well with inquiry and constructivist approaches.
Supports multiculturalism efforts.
Promotes social development.
Assists with classroom discipline.
Provides for more than one “teacher.”
Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning has the best and largest empirical base of any educational innovation.
Cooperative processes have been shown to advance higher-level conceptual learning.
Cooperative learning at the high school level is well worth exploring.
A fad (top down) or a trend (bottom up)?
A Working Example
View the UHS videotape relating to cooperative learning, “Is energy conserved?”
Read the article, Nondirected Research Projects in Physics Coursework, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 34, March 1996, pp. 158 - 161.
Each student is free to write responses to questions provided under Cooperative Learning Lesson Analysis hyperlinked through Cooperative Learning in course syllabus.
The importance of Structure
Lots of Support
Freedom
Control
No Support
SAC-based SALL …
Advice

Advice Sheets
Advisers
User's Guide
Materials





Books
Worksheets
CALL/Video/DVD
Learner Autonomy
Is NOT
learning without a teacher
learning in isolation
a methodology
a single behaviour type
a steady or permanent state
(Little 1991:3-4)
IS
“the ability to take charge of one’s own learning”
(Holec 1981:3)

…a capacity and willingness to act independently and in co-operation with others, as a socially responsible person.”
(Dam 1995:1)
… Your context and concern
Share your Discoveries
Elect a representative from your group to present the results of your discussions to the rest of the group.
List the areas your group feels require research.
SAC-based SALL Problems
Size of the SAC restricts number of users
Layout of the SAC restricts usage
Difficulties of tracking and assessing learner usage/learning
Teachers may see SALL as homework
SALL may be seen as an add-on and the SAC a luxury
The Theory of SALL
Concepts and Claims
Terminology
Distance learning
Open learning
Flexible learning
Individualised instruction
Self-instruction
Self-directed learning
Self-Access Language Learning: SALL
What is SALL? – Learning from materials or facilities that are organised so that the learner can use them without the direct control or presence of a teacher
SALL is the same as Self-Directed Language Learning
SALL is learning that aims to develop Learner Autonomy
Dichotomies in Learner Autonomy
Reactive/Proactive


Semi/Full

Psychological/Political

Consumerist/Humanist
Why SALL is necessary …
Learning to learn is vital in today’s fast-changing and interconnected world. Governments in many countries now call for learners with ‘life-long learning skills’, learners who are:
Keen to learn and improve themselves throughout their lives
Adept at self-learning, articulate, flexible …
(Education Commission 2000)
… Why SALL is necessary…
“One objective of courses in modern languages should be to develop the students’ ability to learn more effectively and to develop independent management of their own learning, so that by the end of insitutionalised education students have the motivation, competence and confidence to face real-life communication using the languages they have already learnt and to tackle the new language learning necessary to cope with new challenges.” (Trim 1997)
… Why SALL is necessary
“Changingness, a reliance on process rather than upon static knowledge is the only thing that makes any sense as a goal for education in the modern world.” (Rogers 1967)

“To lead a learner from an initially dependent to a finally independent position should be one of the built in educational objectives of a learning programme.” (Trim 1976:3)

“Autonomy is the defining characteristic of all sustained learning that achieves long-term success … Autonomy is the learner characteristic that facilitates target language use in the larger world …” (Little 1996:204)
Why SALL is appropriate, wanted and works …
SALL works with:
Children
“Difficult” Languages
Exam-oriented contexts
Learners with little or no formal education
Learners with low motivation and self-esteem
Teachers
The Theory of SALL

Questions
&
Discussion
SALL Research
What’s been done
What needs to be done
How to do it
Your context and concerns …
Share and Discover…
Form a group (make sure you’re from a mix of institutions)
Present your context as well as the concerns you have about supporting and promoting SALL.
State which area/s you feel would be valuable to conduct research in and why
Conducting Research
Qualitative or Quantitative?

Hypothesis-testing or Exploratory?

Individual or Collaborative?

One-off or Cyclical?
Conducting your own Research
In your groups, choose one of the research areas presented earlier which you feel would be worthwhile pursuing
Select a methodology which you feel best fits your context and chosen area of investigation
Discuss any advantages and possible problems
Present to the rest of the group, stating what your choices are and why
… SAC-based SALL
Self-Access Activities
English Conversation Group
Putonghua Conversation Group
English Conversation and Chinese Culture (EC3)
French Conversation Group
English for World Affairs Discussion Group
Red Dragon Club
English Film Discussion Group
Putonghua Film Discussion Group
Spanish Films, Wine and Chat
Ph.D
Carlos Man
Ospina Nova

ELT

Practices

Maestría
Didáctica del
Inglés

MY SETTING
Pácora (Caldas)
Private classes as well as classes payed by the teacher at public shoolS (from 1st to 5th grade)
3 public schools
Diverse socioeconomical strata (>80% 1-2)
Inclusion= Diversity
ME & MY SETTING
Inés Marcela Díaz
Exchange student in Australia (1993).
Children´s Teacher at the CCA-Pereira for 3 years (1996 – 1998)
Agronomist (2004)
My passion: To work and learn with children.
Independent teacher at Pácora from 2006 (not just English).
My research proyect: The impact of using positive reinforcers in Young EFL Leaarner´s assessment in English.
Self-Access Language Learning
International Business
University of Tolima
-Learning Training
-Learning strategies
-Autonomy
-Language Training
-Needs analysis

Create a space/group wherein students have access and share information related to current affairs and others.
Implement a portfolio (paper/digital) in which students write down the reasons for posting/sharing and also evaluate their own understanding.
1. Identify what is being taught.
2. State and follow-up their own purposes.
3. Select and implement learning strategies.
4. Monitor their own learning
5. Monitor and evaluate the use of learning Strategies

Gardner, D. & Miller, L. (1999). Establishing self-access: from theory to practice.
Autonomy
Many thanks!
E-LEARNING
An Innovating Experience
By: Nelson Mejia Roman
E-LEARNERS
E-learners have demonstrated increased retention rates and better utilization of content, resulting in better achievement of knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
THINGS TO BEAR IN MIND
Monotonous text forms
Excessive use of graphic and sounds
Bandwith requirements
Level of interactivity
Connectivity issues
Cost of investment
Social isolation
Quality standards
Functions incorporated in E-learning
E-Learning infrastructure incorporates at
least five functions (Rossett, 2002)
Learning
Information support and coaching
Knowledge management
Interaction and collaboration
Guidance and tracking
.
E-learning refers to the use of Internet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning is also called Web-based learning, online learning, distributed learning, computer-assisted instruction, or Internet-based learning. E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching.
Nowadays, e-learning systems have many advantages(Shishehchi, Banihashem etal. 2010)
comparing to the conventional learning systems. Learners should spend enormous time and cost when they work with the system while e-learning systems allow learner to access electronic materials and learn everything as virtual classrooms (Yu, Nakamura et al. 2007; Shishehchi, Banihashem et al. 2010).
E-learning modes
Distance learning
Computer assisted instruction
Types of e-learning
On line
Off line
Paradigm

E-learning technologies offer educators a new paradigm based on adult learning theory.
Benefits of e-learning
Improves the quality of the learning.
Helps remove barriers to achievement, literacy, numeracy and ICT.
Offers innovative tools. Customize digital learning resources.
Creates on-line communities of practice.
Provides an individualized learning experience for all learners.
Facilitate wider participation, according to the learners’ needs.
Provides personalized learning support.
IMPLEMENTATION OF E-LEARNING
Drives business transformation or change
Eliminates geographical barriers in learning
Cost effective
Allows Self-pace learning
Reduces participation fees
THANK YOU!!
E-learning is a large and growing market with great potential in higher education. (Means et al, 2009). In his empirical study from 1996 and 2008 concluded that students using e-learning performed better than students who did not use e-learning. The students who performed best were those who received blended learning.
The most important characteristics of e-Learning are independence of time and personalization.
E-LEARNING SOURCES
Examples of E-learning
http://www.dreig.eu/caparazon/2007/11/13/ejemplos-de-elearning-ideas-para-innovar/
Illustrative Youtube video
http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=DyLDuC1Evgc&feature=related
ASTRONOMY
GEOLOGY
ECOLOGY
INITIAL QUESTIONS
(students-teacher)
STUDENTS’ HYPOTHESES
RESEARCH OF INFORMATION, READING, AUDIOVISUAL WORK (films, documentaries, short videos), LAB PRACTICE, ORAL PRESENTATIONS
OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

The universe
Caracteristics of planets
The Earth
What makes life on Earth possible.
OUR PLANET

History – Earth’s formation.
Internal ad external structure of the planet.
Geologist work and contributions.
Natural phenomena.
OUR ENVIRONMENT
Animal adaptation
Ecosystems
Environmental problems (kinds of pollution)
Proposals that contribute to the prevention and sollution to environmental problems


SCIENCE WORK – 5th GRADE
OUR EARTH: A UNIQUE PLANET
CONSTRUCTIVIST ACTIVITIES






EXPERIMENTATION






FIELD TRIPS






CLASS DISCUSSIONS






FILMS






RESEARCH PROJECTS
THANKS!
UNIVERSIDAD DE CALDAS
INNOVATIVE ELT PRACTICES
CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE LEARNING
JUAN CARLOS MEJÍA ROMAN
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTIVIST TEACHING
-Actively involved learners.
-Democratic environment.
-Interactive and student-centered activities
-Students’ responsibility and autonomy are encouraged
-Emphasis made on:
-social/communication skills
-collaboration
-exchange of ideas.
Assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student’s work, and the student’s points of view.

Some assessment strategies include:
-Oral discussions.
-KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, What we have learned, How we know it)
-Mind Mapping
-Hands-on activities.
-Pre-testing
CONSTRUCTIVIST ASSESSMENT
CONSTRUCTIVIST TEACHING
“Knowledge is not given but gained through real experiences that have purpose and meaning to the learner, and the exchange of perspectives about the experience with others”
(Piaget Vygotsky, 1978)

•Constructivist theory= learning always builds upon knowledge that a student already knows (schema)
•Learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively.
The teacher:
Avoids most direct instruction
Leads students through questions and activities to discover, discuss, appreciate, and verbalize the new knowledge.

David Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators in constructivist learning environments:
-Modeling
-Coaching
-Scaffolding
TEACHERS’ ROLE
-Question or issue
-Case study
-Long-term Project
-Problem (multiple cases and projects integrated at the curriculum level)
Somme suggestions:
-Make the learning goals engaging and relevant but not overly structured.
-Learning should be driven by the problem to be solved
-Lead students to learn what they need in order to solve the problem.
CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
-Jefferson School (bilingual-private institution. Cali, Colombia).

-Students are distributed in 4 sections:
-Pre-school
-Primary
-Junior (6th-9th)
-Senior (10th-11th)

-Currently, I am in charge of a group of 24 students from 5th grade (11 girls and 13 boys).

-Ages 11-12
ABOUT THE JEFFERSON SCHOOL
OUTLINE
CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTIVIST TEACHING
CONSTRUCTIVIST ACTIVITIES
TEACHERS’ ROLE
CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
CONSTRUCTIVIST ASSESSMENT
ABOUT THE JEFFERSON SCHOOL - CALI
Conditions for
Learner Autonomy
Motivation
Guidance
autonomous learning is by no means “teacherless learning”.
Sharing
Self-esteem
Learner´s attitudes
AUTONOMY
Inés Marcela Díaz
AUTONOMY (L.A.)
=
AGENCY
LEARNERS…
Should take responsibility for themselves
As “Doers”
Must have decision making power
How to promote
AUTONOMY?
Fostering teacher´s autonomy, as it permeates into learners’ autonomy.
(Johnson, Pardesi and Paine, 1990).
Learner´s likes
Diaries and potfolios
Self – reports
Allowing learners to decide what and how to learn.
Projects
Positive reiforcement.
Using technology
References
Brown, Douglas. (2007) Principles of Language Learning.
2. Gadner, D. FOSTERING AUTONOMY IN LANGUAGE LEARNING (http://ilac2010.Zirve.Edu.Tr/fostering_autonomy.Pdf)
3. Harmer, J. How to teach english
4. Jacobs and farrell (2003) http://catalogue.Pearsoned.Co.Uk/assets/hip/gb/hip_gb_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/1408205017.Pdf
http://www3.Telus.Net/linguisticsissues/learnerautonomy.Html
www.Youtube.Com/rsa/motivation
http://privatewww.Essex.Ac.Uk/~fmsawa/autonomy_in_the_libyan_context.Htm
If sex and autonomy are often seen by dictators as subversive activities, it's because they lead to the knowledge that you own your own body (and with it your own voice), and that's the most revolutionary insight of all.
Erica Jong
Listen to the desires of your children. Encourage them and then give them the autonomy to make their own decision.
Denis Waitley
What is AUTONOMY?
Instead of imposing autonomy, we need to gradually extend the students´role in learning.
How to promote AUTONOMY?
Learner autonomy was mentioned by Jacobs and Farrell (2003) as one of the main changes in approaches to Language Teaching 0n CLT Paradigm.
Any Question?
Thanks for your kind attention
Collaborative Learning
Hugo Armando Ascanio
Diego Fernando Cardona

Masters in English Didactics
University of Caldas
2012
Essential Elements of Collaborative Learning
A clear set of specific student learning outcome objectives.

All students in the group "buy into" the targeted outcome.

Clear and complete set of task-completion directions or instructions.

Heterogeneous groups.
Equal opportunity for success.

Positive interdependence.

Face-to-face interaction.

Positive social interaction behaviors and attitudes.

Access to must-learn information.
Essential Elements of Collaborative Learning
Opportunities to complete required information-processing tasks.

Sufficient time is spent learning.

Individual accountability.

Public recognition and rewards for group academic success.

Post-group reflection.
Essential Elements of Collaborative Learning
Thanks…
SAY IT FIRST
INPUT
REWARDS
GRADES
RISKS
SUCCESS
REINFORCEMENT
GAMES
DISCOVERY
INTERESTS
EFFORT
CONTEXT
MATERIALS
STRATEGIES
PRAISE
FEEDBACK
TEAM WORK
ACTIVITIES
PACE
ANXIETY
VARIETY
COMPETITION
GOALS
ENTHUSIASM
THREATS
INVOLVEMENT
RELEVANCE
DRIVES
INCENTIVES
FUN
ENCOURAGEMENT
MOTIVATION
AND
LANGUAGE LEARNING
LIGHTS,
CAMERA
AND
ACTION!!!
Lina María Rodríguez
Larissa Tatiana Rico

Motivation is like …
Effective learning in the classroom depends on…
4
MOTIVATION

Life takes on meaning when you…

Motivation is like food for the brain.
--Peter Davies--
"Effective learning in the classroom depends on the teacher’s ability"... to maintain the interest that bought students to the course in the first place
5
MOTIVATION

Life takes on meaning when you become motivated, set goals and charge after them in an unstoppable manner.
-- Les Brown --
What can we infer from all those definitions? What are the keywords that "Motivation" triggers in our minds?

MOTIVATION
4/12/2012
MOTIVATION
8
MOTIVATION
Three views of motivation
4/12/2012
MOTIVATION
9
MOTIVATION
The Teacher should not the be the center of the class (TTT)
Varied pace of the lesson.
Implementation of collaborative work.
Use of the technology
Activities that are meaningful, innovative and challenging.
Language Use in real situations
Unpredictable teaching
Activation of prior knowledge
Constructivist learning through the search of information in web pages.
Open-mindness.
HOW DO WE MOTIVATE OUR STUDENTS?
MAGIC formula to motivate students to learn English:
Memorable and Manageable language learning materials.

Appropriate level, i.e. comprehensible input

Graded, from easy to difficult

Interesting activities

Contextualized task-based learning
M
A
G
I
C
LIGHTS…
To light everyday our students with something new.
CAMERA…
To make that experience be recorded in our students’minds and hearts.
ACTION…
To keep on moving, playing and enjoying our English lessons!!!
LIGHTS, CAMERA AND ACTION!!!
MOTIVATION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
Motivation is one of the key factors that influence the rate and success of L2 learning
It is responsible for determining human behavior by energizing it and giving it direction.
Without motivation, even individuals with great abilities cannot accomplish long-term goals .
THANK YOU!!!
FLEXIBLE LEARNING
UNIVERSIDAD DISTRITAL
Francisco Jose de Caldas
“If a student cannot learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach the way they learn”

FLEXIBLE LEARNING

Flexible learning is a method by which educational goals can be achieved.
Flexible learning expands choice on what, when, where and how people learn.
Flexible learning demands new ways to engage with students according to their learning styles, likes and preferences .
INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN ELT IN LEBEI

Project Work ( Video-Reports)
E-meeting Places
Social Networks
Blogs and Web sites
FLEXIBLE LEARNING
Universidad Distrital
Francisco Jose de Caldas
Macarena A

MY WORK PLACE
LEBEI
To know how to suggest is the great art of teaching.

Henri Frederic Amiel
I hear and I forget. I see and I remember.
I do and I understand.
 
Chinese Proverb
A teacher affects eternity:
he can never tell where his influence stops.
Henry Adams
Innovative elt practices
Angelica Maria Bastidas
Masters in English Didactics
2012
CONTEXT
CONTEXT: Centro Colombo Americano, a binational English center, a non-profit institution.
SETTING: kids 4 level. 14 students, ages between 9-10 years old, from public and private schools as well. Different levels of English. Nine girls and five boys, most of them from the same
school.
BIOGRAPHY
Bachelor in Modern Languages from Caldas University 2001.
I have worked at Caldas University, Anglohispano High school, English institutions, and Centro colombo Americano (seven years so far)
I have taught adults, teens, and specially children.
LANGUAGE AWARENESS
To apply this area of learning I must provide students with ¨real¨or at least hypothetical situations in which students are forced to use the language. ( arriving in US airport, asking for information, a foreign neighbor and so on)
definition
“Language Awareness can be defined as explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning, language teaching and language use”.
Something to reflect on…




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vtq1XV6ZVOc



I´m just kidding…!
We want a teacher that...
* lets us work in groups
* knows about ICT's
* brings games to class
* helps us study and remember
* ensures variety
* negotiates activities with us
* lets us play a starring role in class, just like a coach
* asks us to be his helpers
* creates projects with us to solve real
problems
*****
Full transcript