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Simulation as an Instructional Strategy
Transcript of Simulation as an Instructional Strategy
of the requirements for ADED 4F32
Facilitating Adult Learning
Bachelor of Education in Adult Education Program Facilitation Guide Simulation has strong links to adult learning theories through experiential learning.
•Cognitive learning theory: deals with the learner’s cognition which is their perception, thought, memory and the way they process and structure information. With simulation, the knowledge learned is controlled by the learner and this control is internal and previous knowledge is used in the simulation experience. Instruction is linked with the cognitive processes of perceiving, thinking and processing information. Learners are able to create and process new knowledge by using prior knowledge (Rutherford-Hemming, 2012). Simulation’s goal is to create a learning environment that is conducive to experiential learning (Norman, 2012). It is structured with specific learning objectives in mind which allows the adult learner to progress through the stages of the experiential cycle in a structured manner. This includes the active component of the analysis, reflection and the incorporation of the new learned changes in practice (Fanning and Gaba, 2007).
Simbase (n.d.) finds that the process of acquiring general knowledge with simulations can be divided into the following three learning goal categories:
1.To know the theory and methods–a content-centred approach.
2.To know the theory and methods and be able to use them in standard situations–enables problem-oriented decisions in standard situations.
3.To know the theory and methods and be able to use them in unknown situations–includes more complex simulation models, which enable a user to create more purposeful space of actions. “Simulation has been defined as a situation in which a particular set of conditions is created artificially in order to study or experience something that is possible in real life; or a generic term that refers to an artificial representation of a real world process to achieve educational goals through experiential learning” (Al-Elq, 2010, p. 35). Experiential learning is learning by having and thinking about an experience, pointing out and planning learning need improvements, and applying the new learning in practice (Fanning and Gaba, 2007).
“Simulation-based training is a method or strategy of training that involves the use of several scientific, theory-based approaches to training, and includes information, demonstration, and practice-based methods” (Simbase, n.d). Simulation has been in use for centuries. The military has the longest history of its use, dating back to the 18th century. Other fields with long simulation histories are aviation and nuclear power. They are in use due to the fact that it would be too costly and dangerous to test and practice in these fields in the real world. For these reasons, the use of simulations became widespread in the medical and nursing fields (Rutherford-Hemming, 2012). Generally, Gibbons et al., (2009, p.171) defines instructional simulations as:
1.One or more dynamic models of physical or conceptual systems…
2.That engage the learner in interactions with the models that result in state changes…
3.According to a nonlinear logic…
4.With supplementation by one or more designed augmenting instructional functions…
5.Employed in the pursuit of one or more instructional goals. Simbase (n.d) finds the key features to be:
1.Performance history/skill inventory
7.Feedback and debrief There are three types of learning as described by Bloom’s taxonomy (Clark, 2010) and all three are addressed in simulations:
1.Cognitive: involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
2.Affective: includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.
3.Psychomotor: includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. Cost A highly sophisticated simulation can get very pricey. This cost increases when adding in the cost of manpower to run it and the costs of repair if needed. “The ability to practice without risk must be weighed against the cost of this new technology” (Al-Elq, 2010, p. 38). A cost benefit analysis should be looked at. Not Reality Simulations strive to be as close to reality as possible but it is not equal to reality. Not all learners are able to transfer their procedural knowledge from the simulation to a clinical job. An evaluation of a simulation does not predict how a learner will perform in a clinical setting (Akaike et al., 2012). Stress of Performing Learners may feel stress and intimidation in the simulation environment. They may also be fearful of the instructor and their peers’ judgment (Fanning & Gaba, 2007). By having a competent instructor, this helps create an open, safe and honest environment. Interpretation of Results Sometimes it is difficult to interpret the simulation results. If the simulation is inaccurate, then the results and interpretations will be inaccurate. Time Consuming Simulations are time consuming and time must be set aside upon completion for a follow-up discussion or debrief. This is an essential process to understand the meaning of what happened during the simulation and why. For successful implementation, simulation “designers must specify:
•Physical settings (classrooms, terminals)
•Social settings that include participants, role expectations, initiative rules
•The structure of instructional goals
•The assignment of goals to event blocks and the sequencing of event blocks
•The specification of event forms and classes
•The strategy (augmentation) rules for event classes
•The use of dramatic context
•The means of supplying problem-related information to learners" (Gibbons et al., 2009, p.178).
1. Clearly identify the area of interest to be studied by performing the simulation.
2. Choose the appropriate tools and materials to be able to do the simulation and study the area of interest.
3. Set aside the appropriate amount of time needed to run the simulation so that the area of interest can be observed in the required detail and a debriefing can occur. •Social learning theory: states that people learn by observing others. The learner will later retrieve the stored modeled behavior when motivated. In healthcare, learners are taught to model the behavior of the instructor. They learn by observing techniques, skills and behaviors. With changing patterns of health care and less opportunities for apprenticeship training, simulations is a solution to this problem. Learners are able to observe and imitate the procedures and skills modeled by simulation instructors (Rutherford-Hemming, 2012). •Constructivist learning theory: believes that when a learner links meaning to an experience or activity, knowledge is constructed. It also believes that learning is active with dialogue, collaborative and cooperative learning (Rutherford-Hemming, 2012). “Simulation creates an environment for active learning to occur; the student constructs knowledge by attaching meaning to the simulation experience and connecting the knowledge learned to a current or future situation” (Rutherford-Hemming, 2012, p. 134). •Generally in simulations, it deals with the adult professional.
•Research shows that with adults, active participation is needed for effective learning.
•Adults learn best when they are involved in the process, they participate, play a role, and experience concrete events in a cognitive way. They also experience transactional events in an emotional way.
•Experiential learning: learning by doing, thinking about and assimilating the lessons learned.
•Ongoing is the integration of new and old knowledge, theory and practice.
•Traditional teaching is not very effective in adults and less so in team-oriented training exercises.
•Adults like their learning to be more problem-based and have meaning to their life situations where they can apply the new knowledge immediately.
(Fanning & Gaba, 2007) Potential Lesson Outline for the Strategy in Action Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Course CPR is a basic life-saving skill that is performed on those who are unresponsive with no respiration or pulse. Its main purpose is to provide partial flow of oxygenated blood to the brain and heart. (2 hour class) Activation 1.Prior to the class: have the learners read over the CPR manual (received prior to the class or accessed online).
2.Introduce yourself and welcome the group.
•What cardiac arrest is
•The percentage of those victims who receive bystander CPR
•The survival rate when the victim receives CPR
•The reasons why someone may not perform CPR
4.Ask the group if they have prior exposure or experience with CPR. Demonstration 1.Show a short movie on a cardiac arrest scenario with a bystander performing CPR.
2.Give a demonstration of CPR using an appropriate CPR manikin.
3.Explain the steps used and the reasons why it is performed in that manner. Application 1.The learners divide into pairs with one manikin.
2.The learners practice performing CPR as taught by the instructor.
3.The learners are examined by the instructor by being given scenarios that they must play out. Integration 1.Ask the learners to share their impressions and thoughts on the lesson.
2.Ask if there were any challenges or difficulties with the lesson.
3.Again discuss the importance of this skill and how they can be advocates for CPR to their family, friends and colleagues.
4.Give final feedback and evaluation to the learners. Rationale for Its Relevancy Simulation as an instructional strategy for this lesson outline is the best approach because the learner progresses through the stages of the experiential learning cycle. The cost of the manikins is a minor constraint that pales when compared to the benefits of CPR to the learners and society. Another limitation is the amount of space required to execute this course depending on the number of participants. An outline detailing the setup and layout of the course can help prepare the learners adequately to be able to fully engage in the simulation. This guide details specific facilitation strategies, roles and processes that are specific to the successful implementation of simulation as part of a lesson. Creating the Lesson •Create a learning objective or goal.
•Create a simulation-based lesson with the outcome answering the learning objective. Carefully create an outline of the lesson answering the why (why are they doing it), how (how it fits in with their overall learning) and what (what they get out of it). Make sure that the lesson is enjoyable and that it proceeds smoothly, clearly and sensibly.
•Determine the length of time needed to achieve these objectives (option of scheduling short breaks).
•Determine the class size and the appropriate amount of space needed to carry out the lesson.
•Ensure that you have the necessary equipment for the lesson.
•Ensure that the participants receive the CPR manual prior to the lesson. Start of the Lesson •Have the room arranged before the participants arrive.
•Introduce yourself and you could ask the participants to introduce themselves and if they have taken a CPR class in the past.
•Share the goals and layout of the lesson. Activation •During the lesson, have only the important points on the overheads/computer.
•Allow time to have the participants respond and discuss.
•Clarify key points. Demonstration •Give a short explanation as to what is in the movie clip.
•Ensure that all the participants can observe and hear the demonstration.
•Give an explanation during the demonstration as to why a certain procedure is done. Application •Move from teaching and lecturing to guided practice and coaching.
•Circulate to all the groups and critically observe. Integration •Give constructive feedback.
•Clarify key points and ensure the learning objective was answered.
•Ask for feedback on the lesson. Cognitive: The participants need to apply their cognitive knowledge and skills while adapting to the ever changing scenarios.
Affective: Simulations invokes emotions in the participants due to the real life-like scenarios.
Psychomotor: Simulations involves action during role-playing. : 20 minutes 25 minutes 45 minutes 30 minutes By the use of these structures, learners, peers and instructors are able to carry out and perform dynamic instructional conversations within simulations (Gibbons et al., 2009). The learners must be able to problem solve, self-direct their learning, have critical thinking skills and be able to integrate different components of the course. Quite a large amount of power lies with the facilitators during this course. More power is awarded to the learners during the application and integration phase of the lesson, although the facilitator never fully relinquishes the power. Rationale for its Relevancy Simulation as an instructional strategy for this lesson outline is the best approach because the learner progresses through the stages of the experiential learning cycle. The cost of the manikins is a minor constraint that pales when compared to the benefits of CPR to the learners and society. Another limitation is the amount of space required to execute this course depending on the number of participants. An outline detailing the setup and layout of the course can help prepare the learners adequately to be able to fully engage in the simulation. The learners must be able to problem solve, self-direct their learning, have critical thinking skills and be able to integrate different components of the course.
Quite a large amount of power lies with the facilitators during this course. More power is awarded to the learners during the application and integration phase of the lesson, although the facilitator never fully relinquishes the power.