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Organized crime and arms trafficking 29.01.2015

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Claudia Seymour

on 21 April 2015

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Transcript of Organized crime and arms trafficking 29.01.2015

Schroeder, 2014
Records of seized weapons in United States
2007- 10: 'submersion phase', deeper into legal markets where violence is counter-productive (p. 76)
29 January 2015
Organized Crime and Arms Trafficking
claudia.seymour@smallarmssurvey.org

Definitions

Small arms and light weapons
Small arms
revolvers and self-loading pistols, rifles and carbines, sub-machine guns, assault rifles, and light machine guns
Light weapons
heavy machine guns, grenade launchers, portable anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns, recoilless rifles, portable missile and rocket launchers, portable anti-aircraft missile launchers, and mortars of less than 100mm calibre
Small Arms Survey, 2014, p. 4
Illicit weapons
Weapons that are produced, transferred, held, or used in violation of national or international law
Arms trafficking
The transfer of small arms and light weapons in violation of national or international law.

Challenges
Licit or illicit?
Diversion
Information gap
Case studies
Kartas, 2013; Massari, 2013; Schroeder, 2013 and 2014
Mafia violence in Italy
Economical use of violence
Violence as resource to maintain market position and increase competitiveness (pp. 80-81)
Heterogeneous patterns in use of armed violence (p. 82)
Lack of systematic data collection
Fragmented information
Much of the data from law enforcement seizure records: incomplete and often incomparable
Data not generalizable internationally
Licit to illicit?


Ammunition pricing
Florquin, 2013

Procurement through robberies of firearms shops, thefts, in exchange for illicit commodities (p. 76)
Schroeder, 2013, p. 284
Ways to address challenges
Large, illegal stockpiles as key source (p. 93)
Records of > 140,000 SALW seized in 8 US cities
77% handguns, 70% of which semi-automatic pistols- vs. only 12% rifles (p. 245)
firearms play a role in vast majority of drug-trade- related murders (p.256)
increasing role in gang violence (p. 259)
limited illicit demand for 'machine guns' (p. 257)
strict laws on imports, ownership and sales, expensive and difficult to conceal
minimal access to and use of light weapons (p. 263)
importance of political stability and strong stockpile security (p. 265)
Massari, 2013
Illicit SALW and Drug-trafficking Organizations in Mexico
Schroeder, 2013
Black market in SALW documented dominated by
drug trafficking organizations (p. 283)
Tactical and strategic importance of SALW (p. 286)
1994- 2012: 306,000 illicit firearms seized (p. 288)
2009- 2012: 72% of weapons seized were sub-machine guns,
shotguns, rifles, carbines, and machine guns (p. 289)
Trafficking of arms from US:need for data (pp. 294-298)
Sources of arms include:
- straw-purchases through brokers (p.294)
- diversion from national and regional military stockpiles(p.298)
Trafficking in the Jefara
Kartas, 2013
Importance of tribal connections
Resurgence of traditional trafficking routes
increasingly militarized
violent clashes between old and new security players
Libyan conflict has changed the nature and actors of organized crime in the border region
Libyan stockpile depletion has added to what was already high level of SALW circulation in region
increased prevalence of high powered weapons
Research and policy measures
Data collection; building evidence base
Control measures
manufacturing controls
regulation of civilian possession
international transfer controls (incl. brokering)
stockpile management and surplus destruction
marking, record-keeping, and tracing
Small Arms Survey
Politically and legally binding global instruments
UN Programme of Action on SALW
International Tracing Instrument
Arms Trade Treaty
UN Firearms Protocol
Small Arms Survey, n.d.
Organized criminal group
"a structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences ... in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit"
UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, (General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000)

Case studies

Source: Florquin, 2013, p. 272
Source: Grzybowski et al., 2012, p. 242
Source: Small Arms Survey, n.d.
Emerging knowledge
Major source of illicit SALW is stockpile diversion
Kalashnikov- and SKS-pattern rifles are commonly found in hands of armed groups and criminals world-wide: prevalence varies widely
Major differences between illicit SALW markets in different countries
Importance of understanding contextual specificity
different actors, different uses of violence
Source: Small Arms Survey, n.d.
Source: Small Arms Survey
Source: Grzybowski et al, 2012, p. 242
Source: Schroeder et al. 2008, p.118- 119
Source: Kartas, 2013, p. 41
References:

Florquin, Nicolas. 2013. Price Watch: Arms and Ammunition at Illicit Markets.
Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 251- 281.

Grzybowski, Janis, Nicolas Marsh, and Matt Schroeder. 2012.

Piece by Piece: Authorized transfers of parts and accessories
. Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 241- 281.

Kartas, Moncef. 2013.
On the Edge? Trafficking and Insecurity at the Tunisian-Libyan Border.
Geneva: Small Arms Survey.

Massari, Monica. 2013. Guns in the Family: Mafia Violence in Italy.
Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 75- 101.

Schroeder, Matt, Helen Close and Chris Stevenson. 2008.
Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 113- 153.

Schroeder, Matt. 2013. Captured and Counted: Illicit Weapons in Mexico and the Philippines.
Small Arms Survey 2013: Everyday Dangers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 283- 317.

Schroeder, Matt. 2014. On the Record: Illicit Weapons in the United States.
Small Arms Survey 2014: Women and Guns.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 245- 273.

United Nations General Assembly. 2000.
UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000.

Source: Small Arms Survey, n.d.
Diversion
The transfer of controlled items authorized for export to one end user, but delivered to an unauthorized end user or used by the authorized end user in unauthorized ways.
Schroeder et al, 2008, p. 114
Overview
Definitions
Key challenges on researching and addressing arms trafficking
Ways of addressing challenges
Emerging knowledge
Research and policy measures
Full transcript