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Memory Information Processing Forgetting Memory Construction
Transcript of Memory Information Processing Forgetting Memory Construction
What's your favorite movie?
Who's your best friend? To recall this information, you use one memory process, assuming two others occurred previously. Encoding
Retrieval 3 basic steps of processing information First memory process.
The transforming of information so that the nervous system can process it.
(recording information) Encoding: Senses and Encoding Basically you use your senses; hearing, sight, touch, taste, and temperature; to encode, and establish a memory. The sensation produced by stimulation of the organs of hearing by the vibrations transmitted through the air or other medium. Hearing: The power or faculty of seeing perception of objects by use of the eye; vision. Sight To come into contact with and, perceive (something), as the hand or the like does Touch To distinguish the flavor of Taste A measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or substance with reference to some standard value Temperature Second memory process.
This is a process by which information is maintained over time.
(Saving information) Storage: Information stored, depends on how much effort was put into encoding the information, and its importance. Information can be stored for a few seconds or for much longer. Retrieval: Storage Encoding Retrieving Automatic
Overlearning Three Ways of Processing Information: The third memory process, occurs when information is brought to mind from storage.
The ease in which information can be retrieved depends on how efficiently it was encoded and stored.
(Calling up stored information) Unconscious process of encoding certain information without effort Automatic Processing: Effortful Processing A way to think of the process of Information encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Overlearning continuing to rehearse information even after it has been memorized You can think of it like this... Automatic processing Effortful processing Overlearning 3 Stages Of Memory Sensory Memory
Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory The brief, initial encoding of sensory information in the memory system In this memory, the senses of sight and hearing are able to hold an input for a fraction of a second before it disappears. Once the senses encode a memory in the brain, the brain must hold on to the input and store it for future reference. 3 distinguishing types of memory, each have a different function and time span. Example of Sensory Memory When you watch a motion picture, you do not notice the gaps between frames. The actions seem smooth because each frame is held in sensory storage until the next frame arrives. George Sperling demonstrated this phenomenon in one of his experiments
He used a tachistoscope (a device that presents a picture for a very brief time) to present a group of letters and numbers to people for twentieth of a second Previous studies had shown that if you present a stimulus like this, people will usually be able to tell you four or five of the items. Sperling believed that the stimulus created a visual image of the letters and that only a few could be read back before the image faded. Sensory Memory Serves 3 Functions Prevents you from being overwhelmed.
Gives you some decision time
Allows for continuity and stability in your world. Short-Term Memory The things you have in your conscious mind at one moment are being held in this form of memory.
It also does not involve paying close attention. Maintenance Rehearsal To keep info in short-term memory for more than a few seconds, you usually have to repeat the info to yourself or out loud. Example... When you copy down notes off the board from your teacher, you can remember a sentence for long enough if you repeat it several times. If you get distracted or make a mistake in copying them, then the chances are you will have to look up at the board again. It has been lost from short-term memory. By using maintenance rehearsal (looking up at the board over and over again), you can keep the info longer in short-term memory. Long- Term Memory A system for permanently storing, managing, and retrieving information for later use. Memory Loss Memory loss can affect anyone at any age, any time. Whether we forget an address, someone's name, where we placed our keys, or even what we are supposed to do this weekend, people forget things all the time. The reasons for memory loss are just as varied as the people who suffer it. Understanding Memory Age
Substance Abuse Reasons for Memory Loss: Recall: bringing a thought or idea learned previously, and thus stored in memory conscious awareness.
Example: When you take an exam,
are recalling the information learned previously.
Recognition: Identifying something you learned previously, and therefore it is stored in some matter of memory.
Example: Taking a multiple choice test requires you to identify material you learned and not necessarily recall information learned previously. Recall and Recognition Born 1856
Modern day Czech Republic
Psychology was in his blood
Was constantly trying to draw the connection between psychology and physiology
Best known for his theory of the unconscious
Was a brand new idea, but he was successful in popularizing it. Sigmund Freud: Memory Construction: By:
Tara Puhalski Pattern 3 Relearning Relearning is a measure of both declarative and procedural memory Example... Suppose you learned a song in your music class when you were a child, but you have not rehearsed it in years. If you can relearn the song with fewer recitations than someone with the ability similar to yours, you are benefiting from your childhood learning. Elizabeth Loftus "One of the things that we know about memory for very upsetting experiences, traumatic experiences, is that the memory does not work like a videotape recorder..." (Forgetting) How can we improve our memories???? Simply exercise your brain! Thanks for watching!!! Made for you by Cailin McCully and Tara Puhalski