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SIR SYED AHMED KHAN
Transcript of SIR SYED AHMED KHAN
Syed Ahmed Khan was born in Delhi, the then capital of the Mughal Empire. He was an Indian educator and politician, and an Islamic reformer and modernist. His family is said to have migrated from Arabia to Wamghan in Iran, and then moved to Herat in Afghanistan in the time of emperor Akbar. Sir Syed's father Mir Muhammad Muttaqi was personally close to Akbar Shah II and served as his personal adviser.[With his elder brother Syed Muhammad Khan, Sir Syed was raised in a large house in a wealthy area of the city. They were raised in strict accordance with Mughal noble traditions and exposed to politics. Their mother Azis-un-Nisa played a formative role in Sir Syed's life, raising him with rigid discipline with a strong emphasis on education. Sir Syed was taught to read and understand the Qur'an by a female tutor, which was unusual at the time. He received an education traditional to Muslim nobility in Delhi. Under the charge of Hamiduddin, Sir Syed was trained in Persian, Arabic, Urdu and religious subjects. He read the works of Muslim scholars and writers such as Sahbai, Rumi and Ghalib. Other tutors instructed him in mathematics, astronomy and Islamic jurisprudence. Sir Syed was also adept at swimming, wrestling and other sports. He took an active part in the Mughal court's cultural activities.
Social reforms in the Muslim society were initiated by Abdul Latif. He founded “The Mohammedan Literary Society" in Bengal. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental college. Later, this institution came to be known as the Aligarh Muslim University. He opposed ignorance, superstitions and evil customs prevalent in the Muslim society. He firmly believed that the Muslim society would not progress without the acquisition of western education and science. Having recognized the steady decline in Mughal political power, Sir Syed entered the British East India Company's civil service. He was appointed serestadar at the courts of law in Agra, responsible for record-keeping and managing court affairs. In 1840, he was promoted to the title of munshi. In 1858, he was appointed to a high-ranking post at the court in Muradabad, where he began working on his most famous literary work.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, October 1817 – 27 March 1898), born Syed Ahmad Taqvi commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian Muslim philosopher and social activist of nineteenth century India.n 1842, Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II conferred upon Sir Syed the title of Javad-ud Daulah, conferred upon Sir Syed’s grandfather Syed Hadi by Emperor Shah Alam II around the middle of the 18th century. In addition, the Emperor added the title of Arif Jang. The conferment of these titles was symbolic of Sir Syed’s incorporation into the nobility of Delhi.Born into Muslim nobility, Sir Syed earned a reputation as a distinguished scholar while working as a jurist for the British East India Company. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he remained loyal to the British and was noted for his actions in saving European lives. After the rebellion, he penned the booklet Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Mutiny) – a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Towards this goal, Sir Syed founded the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College (today Aligarh Muslim University) in 1875 with the aim of promoting social and economic development of Indian Muslims.
One of the most influential Muslim politicians of his time, Sir Syed was suspicious of the Indian independence movement and called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Raj. He denounced nationalist organisations such as the Indian National Congress, instead forming organisations to promote Muslim unity and pro-British attitudes and activities. Sir Syed promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims, and mentored a rising generation of Muslim politicians and entrepreneurs. Prior to the Hindi–Urdu controversy, he was interested in the education of Muslims and Hindus both and this was the period in which Sir Syed visualised India as a "beautiful bride, whose one eye was Hindu and, the other, Muslim". Due to this view, he was regarded as a reformer and nationalist leader.
There was a sudden change in Sir Syed's views after the Hindi–Urdu controversy. His education and reformist policies became Muslim-specific and he fought for the status of Urdu. Maulana Hali writes, in his book, Hayat-e-Javed, "One day as Sir Syed was discussing educational affairs of Muslims with Mr. Shakespeare, the then Commissioner of Banaras, Mr. Shakespeare looked surprised and asked him, 'This is the first time when I have heard you talking specifically about Muslims. Before this you used to talk about the welfare of the common Indians.'" Sir Syed then told him, "Now I am convinced that the two communities[Muslims and Hindus] will not put their hearts in any venture together. This is nothing [it is just the beginning], in the coming times an ever increasing hatred and animosity appears on the horizon simply because of those who are regarded as educated. Those who will be around will witness it." Sir Syed is hailed as the father of the Two Nation Theory and one of the founding fathers of Pakistan, along with Allama Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
1. Ahkam Tu'am Ahl-Kitab, Kanpur, 1868.
2. Al-Du'a Wa'l Istajaba, Agra, 1892.
3. Al-Nazar Fi Ba'z Masa'il Imam Al-Ghazzali, Agra.
4. Izalat ul-Chain as Zi'al Qarnain, Agra, 1889.
5. Zila al-Qulub ba Zikr al-Mahbub, Delhi, 1843.
6. Kimiya-i-Sa'dat, 2 fasl, 1883.
7. Mazumm ba nisbat tanazzul ulum-i-diniya wa Arabiya wa falsafa-i-Yunaniya, Agra, 1857.
8. Namiqa fi Bayan Mas'ala Tasawwur al-Shaikh, Aligarh, 1883.
. Rah-i-Sunnat dar rad-i-bid'at, Aligarh, 1883.
9. Risala Ibtal-i-Ghulami, Agra, 1893.
10. Risala hwal Mojud, 1880.
11. Risala Tahqiq Lafzi-i-Nassara, 1860.
12. Tabyin-ul-Kalam fi Tafsir-al-turat-wa'l Injil ala Mullat-al-Islam (The Mohomedan Commentary on the Holy Bible).
Vol. I Aligarh, 1880,
Vol. II Aligarh, 1882, Agra, 1903.
Vol. III Aligarh, 1885
Vol. IV Aligarh, 1888
Vol. V Aligarh, 1892.
Vol. VI Aligarh, 1895
Vol. VII Agra, 1904.
14. Tafsir al-Jinn Wa'l Jan ala ma fi al-Qur'an, Rahmani Press, Lahore, 1893, Agra, 1891.
15. Tafsir-a-Samawat, Agra.
16. Tahrir fi Usul al-Tafsir, Agra, 1892.
17. Tarjama fawa'id al-afkar fi amal al-farjar, Delhi 1846.
18. Tarqim fi qisa ashab al-kahf wal-Raqim, Agra, 1889.
19. Tasfiyad al'Aquid (Being the correspondence between Syed Ahmad Khan and Maulana Muhammad Qasim of Deobund).
20. He promote western and eastern education.
21. Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (Reasons for the Indian Revolt of 1857) 1875
1. Asbab-i-Bhaghwat-i-Hind, Urdu 1858 and English edition, Banaras.
2. Lecture Indian National Congress Madras Par, Kanpur, 1887.
3. Lectures on the Act XVI of 1864, delivered on the 4th Dec., 1864 for the Scientific Society, Allygurh, 1864.
4. Musalmanon ki qismat ka faisla (taqarir-e-Syed Ahmad Khan wa Syed Mehdi Ali Khan etc.) Agra, 1894.
5. On Hunter's :Our Indian Mussulmans' London, 1872.
5. Present State of Indian Politics (Consisting of lectures and Speeches) Allahabad, 1888.
6. Sarkashi Zilla Binjor, Agra 1858.
7. Iltimas be Khidmat Sakinan-i-Hindustan dar bad tarraqi ta' lim ahl-i.Hind, Ghazipore, 1863.
8. Lecture dar bab targhib wa tahris talim itfal-i-Musalmanan, in 1895, Agra 1896.
9. Lecture Madrasaat ul-Ulum Aligarh Key Tarikhi halat aur jadid Waqi'at Par, Agra. 1889.
10. Lecture Ijlas Dahum Muhammadan Educational Conference, Agra, 1896.
11. Lecture Muta'liq Ijlas Yazdahum Muhammadan Educational Conference, Agra, 1896.
12. Majmu'a Resolution Haye dah sala ed. by Sir Syed Ahmad, Agra1896.
13. Report Salana (Annual Report of the Boarding House of Madrasat-ul-Ulum 1879-1880).
made by : Huzaifa Saad and Maqbool , Zoiea, Farwa, Payala, Umer Junaid