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INTEGRATED

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Joseph Dally

on 4 September 2013

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Transcript of INTEGRATED

Curriculum is aligned to state and/or national standards.
INTEGRATING
CURRICULUM
the
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Student work should be meaningful and have precise connections to the common core standards.
It specifies a FOCUS for
the curriculum.
Topics or areas of study that will be included in instruction are determined. This helps both teachers and students to make connections.
Basic skills in reading and math are linked with social studies, science, and other disciplines such as art, music, PE and technology.
Skills that have been taught in reading and math are integrated into science and social studies learning in order to strengthen those basic skills. For example, using graphing skills to chart the phases of the moon throughout the month.
Key Elements
Key Elements
Implementation requires team effort and planning.
It is necessary to plan with other teachers in order to map and align the curriculum and see what objectives overlap. This allows teachers to examine what is being taught and when and to reflect on how the instruction is being delivered.
Both informal and formal assessments are included.
- end-of-unit tests
- observations during class discussions,
group and independent work
- daily quizzes
- mandatory reading assessments
- state mandated assessments
Differentiated instruction plays a key role in the success of an integrated curriculum
- flexible grouping
- tiered assignments
- independent study
- contracts
- compacting

It is important to differentiate the instruction as well as the assessment.
Identifies relationships between subject areas.
Integrating the curriculum encourages students to identify relationships among several subject areas/disciplines instead of just learning isolated facts.
Problem solving skills are developed that aid in addressing issues in real life.
Students are able to see the connections by problem solving. This prepares students with the tools for solving real life issues.
Overview
is the linking or weaving together of subject
areas/disciplines to meet objectives required by State and National standards.
It is a way of managing instruction whereby required objectives, skills, topics,
or themes are connected across disciplines. It is simply about making
connections across disciplines and in real life. It is an educational approach
that prepares children for lifelong learning.

A Multidisciplinary Approach starts with a theme and then the disciplines are connected by the theme.

In an Interdisciplinary Approach the curriculum is organized around common learnings across the disciplines.

The Transdisciplinary Approach has teachers and students select an appropriate topic of study and connect the disciplines to the topic by utilizing project-based learning.
Integrating the Curriculum
on integrating the curriculum
RESEARCH
• comparison studies designed to
determine the effectiveness of an integrated curriculum on content learning and attitude.

• how to implement an integrated
curriculum successfully

• teachers' experiences in the form of
descriptions of thematic units they have
taught or collaborations with
other teachers
Research findings fall into
three major divisions.
Students in the integrated
programs did as well or better than
students in separate-subject programs.

Vars (1965)
An interdisciplinary approach from
a school in Los Angeles showed that
it had a statistically significantly
positive effect on writing and content
knowledge even after only one year.

Aschbacher (1991)
Reports showed that a change from
a literature-based language arts
program to a science-literature-based
program resulted in achievement
increases for the majority of
the students.

Levitan (1991)
Motivation for learning is increased
when student work on "real" problems
– a common element in integrated
programs

Vars (1965)
Integrated curriculum is associated
with better student self-direction,
higher attendance, higher levels of
homework completion, and better
attitudes toward school.

Jacobs (1989)
In a study of an integrated
mathematics curriculum was found
that after one year 83% of the
teachers involved preferred to continue
with the integrated program rather than
return to the traditional curriculum.

Edgerton (1990)
Teachers in California were
involved in a program that taught
year-long themes, with a blend of
science, language arts, social studies,
mathematics, and fine arts.
Improvements were noted in student
attitudes, teacher attitudes, and
student achievement.

Greene (1991)
Implementation
Research has shown the
following components essential
in an integrated curriculum:
• Core skills and processes
• Curriculum stands and themes
• Major themes
• Questions
• Unit development
• Evaluation

Shoemaker (1991)
Teachers and curriculum
supervisors should work together to identify common goals, objectives, skills, and themes. From these lists, the teachers work together to find appropriate connections to
content areas.

Palmer (1991)
1. Conduct action research to learn about current resources and best practices
2. Develop a proposal for integration
3. Implement and monitor the pilot program, with continual assessment of students
and the program
4. Adopt a program and continue
to assess

Jacobs (1991)
• Helps students apply skills
• Leads to faster retrieval of information
• Multiple persepectives lead to a more integrated knowledge base
• Encourages depth and breadth in learning
• Promotes positive attitudes in students
• Provides for more quality time for curriculum exploration

Lipson (1993)
For steps have been identified
that are integral to success.
Summary of Research
Findings on Integrated
Curriculum
Types and levels of
Integrating the Curriculum
• Fragmented
• Connected
• Nested
• Sequenced
• Shared
• Webbed
• Threaded
• Integrated
• Immersed
• Networked
Nested
Social, thinking, and content skills are targeted within a subject area.

Pros: Gives attention to several areas at once, leading to enriched and enhanced learning.

Cons: Students may be confused and lose sight of the main concepts of the activity or lesson.
Webbed
Thematic teaching, using a theme as a base for instruction in many disciplines

Pros: Motivating for students, helps students see connections between ideas

Cons: Theme must be carefully and thoughtfully selected to be meaningful, with relevant and rigorous content
Integrated
Priorities that overlap multiple disciplines are examined for common skills, concepts, and attitudes

Pros: Encourages students to see interconnectedness and interrelationships among disciplines, students are motivated as they see these connections.

Cons: Requires interdepartmental teams with common planning and teaching time
Immersed
Learner integrates by viewing all learnind through the perspective of one area of interest

Pros: Integration takes place within the learner

Cons: May narrow the focus of the learner
Examples
References
Aschbacher, P., "Humanitas: A Thematic Curriculum." Educational Leadership 49/2 (1991): 16-19.

Edgerton, R., Survey Feedback from Secondary School Teachers that are Finishing their First Year Teaching from an Integrated Mathematics Curriculum. Washington, DC, 1990. (ED 328 419)

Greene, L., "Science-Centered Curriculum in Elementary School." Educational Leadership 49/2 (1991):48-51.

Jacobs, H. H., Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Design and Implementation. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1989.

Lake, K., "Integrated Curriculum", Northwest Regional Educational Laboratories, Close-Up #16

Levitan, C., "The Effects of Enriching Science by Changing Language Arts from a Literature Base to a Science Literature Base on Below Average 6th Grade Readers." Journal of High School Science Research 2/2 (1991): 20-25.

Lipson, M.; Valencia, S.; Wixson, K.; and Peters, C., "Integration and Thematic Teaching: Integration to Improve Teaching and Learning." Language Arts 70/4 (1993): 252-264.

Palmer, J., "Planning Wheels Turn Curriculum Around." Educational Leadership 49/2 (1991): 57-60.

Shoemaker, B., "Integrative Education: A Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century." Oregon School Study Council 33/2 (1989).

Vars, G., A Bibliography of Research on the Effectiveness of Block-Time Programs. Ithica, NY: Junior High School Project, Cornell University, 1965.
Example #1
Science, Math, and Writing can be integrated into a unit on Earth's ecosystems.

Activities could include graphing the number of endangered coral from different locations and then explaining reasons why there would be more or less in differing ecosystems. The students could then write an explanation why these numbers are different. They could also write a letter to different groups explaining ways on how they could help increase the numbers of endangered coral. This project offers opportunities to cover Common Core Standards in three different disciplines.

Science:
3.L.2.2 - Explain how environmental conditions determine how well
plants survive and grow.
3.E.2.1 - Compare Earth's saltwater an freshwater features
(includes oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, and glaciers

Math:
3.MD.3 - Represent and interpret data - Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs.

Writing:
W.3.1 - Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

Students could be assessed in a variety of ways. The writing would be assessed as to the letter they wrote. Math
would be assessed as to the accuracy of their graphs. Science would be assessed as to the vocabulary they included in their writing. Science knowledge could also be assessed in the way of various projects. The students could create a
diorama that would explain their findings. They could have debate as to the seriousness of the information
they find. They could put together a poster that would be displayed at an aquarium. The ideas
for projects are numerous.
Example #2
Social Studies, Math, and Writing can be integrated into a unit on the economy.

The students could come up with an invention of their own that provided a new service or product to consumers.
I highlighted two standards from writing and social studies but this topic could be thoroughly explored to include concepts from all disciplines including reading, math, and science. Activities could include group work to develop a new invention; ways to market their new invention, a letter to an investor
(the teacher) to convince him/her to invest their money into
their invention. The class as a whole could come up with an
idea together to model the previous activity. The students
could then put together a foldable that described how the
economy works.

Social Studies:
3.E.2 – Understand entrepreneurship in a market economy -
Explain why people become entrepreneurs.

Writing:
W.3.1 – Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting
a point of view with reasons.

The students would be assessed by the letter that they would write to me to get me to invest in their invention.
Use the letter to assess that the students have written what an entrepreneur is, one risk, and one incentive to being an entrepreneur.
• 1 points if they have correctly define entrepreneur
• 1 point for a correct risk
• 1 point for a correct incentive
• 1 point for a closing sentence
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