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Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism
Transcript of Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism
2. The Colonial System
3. India under the British Raj
4. Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia.
Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism
Patterns change significant after 1800, trade is for vastly different products.
What causes these changes after 1800?
Imperialism is dominated by a need for markets and for foreign primary goods.
What is Imperialism?
Many causes for imperialism but economic likely the most important.
Gradual transition from indirect economic control of prior periods to that of more direct political control afterwards.
Industrial Revolution required this more consistant control and occupation.
In the last quarter of the 19th century is really where the land scramble of imperialism takes place.
By 1900 almost all of Africa and Asia is under colonial rule.
What exceptions exist to colonial control and why?
Different manners of control exist amongst powers, indirect rule is often favored.
No strong reason for which places what style of rule take place other than the fact that resistance is higher in states with greater cohesion.
Which countries largely favored what systems and why?
What is Social Darwinism and how did that impact the philosophy of colonialism?
Civilizing mission of colonialism, the "White Man's Burden".
Essay on page 518.
Idea of justifying conquest by civilizing the conquered along western lines.
Two big alternatives exist within imperial system that of assimilation versus association.
What powers favored which ideas?
British India a mixed collection of states and polities.
Direct rule existed in company control in large parts; with indirect in places under the control of the Indian princes.
What were the good effects of British control of India?
Essay on page 519.
The British Raj, the viceroy as controller.
What are the negatives to British control over India?
What was the idea behind "Indian in blood and color, but English in taste" and how supportive of it was the majority of colonists?
Between 1800-1900 the region becomes almost completely colonized.
The period begins with the settlement of Dutch/English disputes and the foundation of Singapore in 1819.
The French gradually get involved later as well.
What powers involve themselves in what areas?
Why does Thailand remain independent?
Westernization in Thailand and Anna and the King.
U.S. involvement in the region after 1898.
What were the major reasons for involvement in the region?
Mixed use of direct and indirect systems of control by the varied powers.
General lack of democratic institutions and where they existed they favored the conservative, wealthy elite and/or the settler communities.
Education and reforms were taken slowly despite promises, why?
Economically, the powers favored primary crop, cash crop, development and prevented potential competition from arising.
What industry existed did so for solely local demands and was then foreign owned.
Peasants remained the bulk of the population and stayed in harsh positions.
Cash crop economy in contrast with subsistance agriculture led to new varients of the plantation system.
Improving sanitary conditions leads to larger and larger populations.
Cities grew dramatically with the additions of slums.
Who benefitted from the economic systems employed in the colonies?
5. Empire Building in Africa
6. The Emergence of Anticolonialism
What level of involvement did Europeans have with Africa prior to 1800 and why?
During the 19th century the slave trade begins to radically decline.
Also there is a great increase in the demand for African products.
This leads to larger, more permanant European occupations.
The Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia founded for freed slaves.
Occupations likewise begin in North Africa.
First incursions into North Africa by Napoleon.
The reign of Muhammed Ali in Egypt.
The building of the Suez Canal.
Eventual occupation of Egypt by the British.
Why were the British so concerned with Egypt?
Revolt in Sudan and the death of Charles Gordon.
In the Maghreb the French begin to take over starting in 1830.
Final piece of North Africa is occupied by the Italians between 1911 and 1912.
In East Africa slavery continues and even increases.
Arab influence is still important in the region too.
Who was David Livingstone?
In South Africa the British take over during the Napoleonic Wars and shortly thereafter the Boers begin the Great Trek.
Boers eventually found two states, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
Both the British and the Boers originally face resistance from the Zulus under Shaka.
What does the term Scramble for Africa mean and when does it take place.
Limited European control on the periphery is finally overcome.
Economic motives ultimately second to European rivalries.
Christianity, Commerce, and Civilization.
What conditions changed to allow greater European control of the continent?
King Leopold II and the Congo
The Berlin Conference in 1884, "effective occupation for future annexations."
Little conflict in occupations, potential though at places like Fashoda in 1898.
Europeans maintain little interest in Africa after occupation.
In West Africa the British employ largely indirect rule.
They even go as far to create chieftains when none previously existed.
In systems of indirect rule how much change and influence did European culture have over African cultures?
In East Africa, small but important settler populations cause problems due to their desire for dominion status
What did dominion status entail for British colonies?
In South Africa, things were even more different because of the extremely high number of white settlers.
Self-rule, dominion status is strongly favored by the settler population.
Discoveries of Gold and Diamonds leads to the Boer War between 1899-1902.
Boers are defeated through use of extreme measures, like concentration camps, but how did they in some strong way acheive victory?
Foundation of the dominion of South Africa in 1910, white settlers hold franchise and eventual seeds of apartheid are planted.
Southern Rhodesia also becomes a white settler colony in 1922 and will experience similar problems and issues.
Other European powers often rule more directly
Why did the French favor more centralized control?
What was one of the major goals of French colonization and how did it differ from the British?
In general, Europeans overtime gradually favor African colonies that can be self-supportive.
Racism and white supremacy spreads from colonial system.
Colonial governments do eliminate some less desirable traditions like what?
How does the position of women change as a result of European colonization?
Shortly after occupation, the colonized begin to develop nationalism.
What is nationalism and how in many ways does African and Asian colonies not fit these definitions?
Nationalism is realistically and originally a Western concept, how is African/Asian nationalism generally based on?
Colonialism creates feelings of nationhood amongst the colonized.
Traditional resistance occurs in many locations and is often a precursor to nationalism.
Variety of kinds of resistance from different groups.
Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 in India.
As a result the Mughal Empire is officially disbanded and British East Indian Company possessions are taken over by the crown.
Most resistances are not successful and the few that they are very limited.
Balance sheet of Empire, essay on page 536.