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Transcript of Jean Piaget
The Reasoning of Children: Cause and Effect Relations
Born August 9 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland
Published his first paper at the age of 10
Recieved his PhD at the age of 22
He died on September 17, 1980
Adaptation What it says: adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation Assimilation The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit.
Accommodation The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation.
Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can't have one without the other.
Classification The ability to group objects together on the basis of common features. Class Inclusion The understanding, more advanced than simple classification, that some classes or sets of objects are also sub-sets of a larger class. (E.g. there is a class of objects called dogs. There is also a class called animals. But all dogs are also animals, so the class of animals includes that of dogs) Conservation The realisation that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different.
Decentration The ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate.
Egocentrism The belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around you: the corresponding inability to see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Not moral "selfishness", just an early stage of psychological development.
Operation The process of working something out in your head. Young children (in the sensorimotor and pre-operational stages) have to act, and try things out in the real world, to work things out (like count on fingers): older children and adults can do more in their heads.
Schema (or scheme) The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together.
Stage A period in a child's development in which he or she is capable of understanding some things but not others
Sensorimotor stage (Infancy). In this period (which has 6 stages), intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because its based on physical interactions / experiences. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age (memory). Physical development (mobility) allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbollic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage.
Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood). In this period (which has two substages), intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversable manner. Egocentric thinking predominates
Concrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence). In this stage (characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume), intelligence is demonstarted through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thought diminishes.
Formal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood). In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. Only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood.
Work Cited http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cogsys/piaget.html http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm Criticisms Piaget observed his own three children and children from rich and well socialized families. This does not represent the general population, causing great debates.
Piaget said in his research that children will automatically develop as they mature, when other research suggests that every child varies due to their environment.
Piaget said that children are egocentric and that they do not know how thought processes work; however, they have a great deal of empathy and they have this skill as young as age 4 or 5.
Piaget began the interest with a child's mind and did research to find out more. He contributed to research methods and theories used today.