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Surface Water

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Briana Hunsdorfer

on 26 March 2012

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Transcript of Surface Water

Surface Water So what happens once it reaches Earth's surface? Runoff Water flowing downslope along Earth's surface. Where might it all flow to...? Streams rivers lakes puddles evaporation infiltration How do we know what its going to do?! 4 factors... 1. VEGETATION 2. RATE OF PRECIPITATION 3. SOIL COMPOSITION 4. SLOPE Precipitation falling on vegetation slowly flows down leaves and branches, and it eventually drops gently to the ground. Precipitation falls with far more force onto barren land which makes soil clump together. Light, gentle precipitation soaks into the ground. Hard, fast precipitation will sit on top of the ground. Soil with a high percentage of COARSE (big) particles has a large PORE size and allows MORE water in. Soil with a high percentage of FINE (small) particles has small PORE size and allows LESS water in. The steeper the slope, the faster the rate of flow, the LESS water can soak into the ground. The less steep the slope is, the slower the rate of flow, the MORE water can soak into the ground. How do streams form? Water runs in thin sheets + more runoff Water makes a channel + more runoff Channels widen, deepen, become longer Watershed Divide A high land area that separates one watershed from another. All of the land area whose water drains into a stream system. All of the materials carried in the water of a stream. All streams flow DOWNSLOPE... What affects a stream's path? Stream system A stream system is made up of a river and all of its tributaries. SOLUTION SUSPENSION Material dissolved in the stream's water. All particles small enough to be held up by the flow of the stream. DIScharge The amount of stream water that flows over a particular spot within a certain amount of time. Average discharge = 173,600 m3/s MI River Flood When water spills over the sides of a stream's banks onto adjacent land. Floodplain The broad, flat area that extends out from a stream's banks that gets covered during floods. Moving Water carves a path. The first and foremost condition necessary for stream formation is an adequate supply of water. Precipitation provides the water for the beginnings of stream formation. In areas where precipitation falls infrequently, stream development and flow are also infrequent. For example, in some desert areas, where years pass between rainfalls, the streams that form are short-lived. However, most parts of the temperate and tropical regions on Earth experience precipitation on a regular basis. Headwaters stream channel stream banks headward erosion stream piracy The region where water first accumulates to supply a stream. In time the moving water carves a narrow pathway into the sediment or rock. The channel widens and deepens as more and more water accumulates and cuts into Earth's surface. The process by which small streams erode away the rock or soil at the head of a stream is known as headward erosion. Sometimes a stream erodes its way through a divide, joins another stream, and then draws away its water. (capture) Meander A bend or curve in a stream channel caused by moving water. Erosion The breakdown and movement of particles from one location to another by water, wind, glaciers, or gravity. Deposition When sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to the bottom of a body of water. faster slower faster slower faster slower young mature meandering oxbow Alluvial fan delta A stream's velocity decreases suddenly causing the stream to drop its sediment in a fan-shaped deposit at the base of a slope. The triangular deposit that forms when a stream enters a large body of water. China Iran california Russia Egypt Mississippi Rejuvenation "To make young again." When a stream resumes a V-shape and again begins cutting through the Earth, increasing its rate of flow. Lake A depression in the surface materials of a landscape that collects and holds water. Oxbow Glacial Landslide Prehistoric Lakes can become... Eutrophic When lakes become rich in nutrients from the surrounding watershed causing a change in the types of organisms that live there. Wetland A land area covered with water for a large part of the year. Bog marsh swamp Fed by PRECIPITATION Contain SPHAGNUM Sphagnum makes soil acidic
Supports unusual plant species
(pitcher plants, sun dews, Venus' fly traps) Fed by STREAMS
Commonly found near DELTAS Deltas allow for a variety of grasses to grow... Swamps form from marshes that can support TREES and SHRUBS
Most of Pennsylvania's COAL came from 250 million year old SWAMPS stream load
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