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Unit 12 - Task 1
Transcript of Unit 12 - Task 1
Advances in UK public health 19th Century The poor law 1834 The national public health Act 1848 John Snow and B.St Pump John Simon and 1866 Sanitary Act 20th Century Beverage Report 1942 National health service Ac Heson Report 1998 Saving lives our healthier nation 21st Century Choosing health: making healthy choices
easier 2004 Health protection agency In 1834 the poor law amendment act was passed on by parliament. This was designed to decrease the cost of looking after the poor as it put a stop to money going to the poor people unless in exceptional circumstances. Now if people wanted to gain help they had to go into a workhouse to get it. The poor were given food and clothes in the workhouse in exchange for several hours of manual labor every day. People had to wear a certain type of uniform, and follow strict rules. Inside the workhouse, families were split up and had a poor diet based upon bread and watery soup. Conditions were that terrible that only the people who desperately needed help would go there. The Public Health Act of 1848 was the outcome of Chadwick's sanitary report and the pressure applied on Parliament by the Health of Towns Association. This act was one of the first to test the concept of Laissez-Faire, however it had its limitations. The Central board of Health had limited funds and there was no pressure to ensure that officials were suitably trained or qualified. Within some neighborhoods there was unfriendliness to interference from the central government and this led to poor improvements being made. Health was still not a governmental responsibility, and therefore the power of the Central Board of health was limited. John snow was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene. He was considered to be one of the fathers of modern epidemiology, because of his work in finding the source of a cholera outbreak that was spread by contaminated water. Sir John Simon was an English surgeon and public health campaigner who made an effort to improve the hygienic excellence of urban life which led to the founding of modern standards of a public health service. Among Simon's main achievements, two of them stand out. The first was his management of measures taken in 1866 to improve public sanitation, including the facility of clean drinking water and safe sanitary disposal. The second was the founding of the General Medical Council, the licensing body for medical practitioners in the United Kingdom. William Beveridge trained as a lawyer but came to importance during the Liberal government of 1906 - 1914 when he was asked to instruct David Lloyd George on old age pensions and national insurance. During World War One, Beveridge was involved in mobilising and controlling manpower. The Beveridge report suggests an important series of changes designed to provide a financial safety net to ensure a freedom after the war was over. Everyone of working age would be expected to pay a weekly national insurance contribution. In return to this, benefits would be paid to the unemployed, sick, widowed, retired, and there would also be a payment allowance for families. The white paper "Choosing health: making healthy choices easier", published in 2004, outlined some important ways to help people make the right choices about their health, such as how to receive information and gain practical support on improving their emotional well being and access to services so that healthy choices are easier to make.
There are three stages to healthier choices which consist of:
Informed choice - people want to make their own decisions about choices that affect their health and to have trustworthy information.
Personalisation - were some people want help to make healthy choices and stick to them, although current services can be difficult to use or do not meet the needs of some people.
Work together - the public are clear that government and individuals alone cannot make development on healthier choices. Real progress depends on effective partnerships across communities including local government, NHS, businesses, advertisers, the voluntary sector, communities, and the media.
The Health Protection Agency's role is to deliver a combined approach to protecting UK public health through the delivery of support and advice to the NHS, local authorities, emergency services, and the department of health. The function of the HPA is to reduce dangers to health such as infections, chemicals, and radiation hazards. Its purposes are set out in the HPA Act 2004. Its job is to protect the community against infectious diseases and other dangers to health. Since its launch in 1948, the NHS has progressed into becoming the world’s largest publicly funded health service. It is also one of the most efficient, free and most comprehensive services. In the UK, life expectancy has been rising and infant mortality has been falling since the NHS was established. Both figures associate favorably with other nations. Surveys also show that patients are usually satisfied with the care they receive from the NHS. Saving lives deals with specific issues such as cancer, coronary heart disease, strokes, accidents, and mental health problems. It also looks at a wider range of issues, for example, sexual health, tackling drug and alcohol problems, communicable disease, genetics and improving ethnic minorities. Sir Donald Acheson, was chief medical officer between 1983 and 1991 and was widely acknowledged as the key policymaker of the UK's successful drive against Aids. He will also be remembered for raising the profile of public health and his 1998 Acheson report on health inequalities.